Asthma is considered a serious chronic illness. It develops due to non-infectious inflammation of the bronchi. The main symptoms of asthma are shortness of breath during an attack, chest muscle tension, wheezing, severe coughing, and shortness of breath.
Patients with bronchial asthma complain of a feeling of tightness in the chest and the inability to completely clear their throat.
What is bronchial asthma
This disease can be diagnosed in people of different ages. To date, effective treatment programs have been developed to relieve asthma symptoms and relieve bronchospasm.
In patients with bronchial asthma, there are signs of impaired airway patency for the following reasons:
- the lumen of the bronchi narrows due to smooth muscle spasm;
- due to the increased production of secretions, bronchial obstruction occurs;
- in an advanced stage, muscle tissue is often replaced by connective tissue.
Asthma with asthma symptoms in an adult reduces the ability to work.
The first signs of bronchial asthma
The chances of successful treatment of the disease increase if the first alarming symptoms of asthma are recognized in a timely manner.
A number of early signs of a pathological condition include:
- shortness of breath, which can be disturbing at rest, during physical exertion, being in polluted air, in spring during flowering of vegetation, as well as when the ambient temperature changes;
- dry cough occurs simultaneously with shortness of breath. By the end of the cough, a small amount of mucus is released, the cough becomes moist;
- shallow breathing and lengthening of exhalation. During this state, it is difficult for asthmatics to fully exhale;
- early asthma symptoms can also manifest as wheezing and wheezing;
Sometimes it is not immediately possible to understand how asthma begins in adults, as the first symptoms may be blurry. Over time, they become pronounced. If the frequency of manifestations increases, you should definitely consult a doctor.
The main and concomitant symptoms of the disease in adults
Important signs of asthma are a periodic cough of a paroxysmal nature, which is accompanied by whistling when inhaling and exhaling and wheezing. The patient has heavy breathing, a feeling of compression of the chest, with frequent breaths he tries to get as much oxygen as possible.
In many situations, signs of bronchial asthma in adults appear at night or after contact with an allergen.
- Cough is a symptom of many colds and viral diseases. In this case, it appears due to irritation of the bronchial mucosa. It can react to the effects of harmful bacteria, allergens, etc. Regardless of the form of the disease, a dry cough, accompanied by shortness of breath, worries. When an insufficient amount of air is supplied, the person coughs even more. A characteristic feature of this condition is the absence of the process of sputum discharge. In some cases, the volume of its release is very small. Adults may start coughing due to excessive physical exertion, talking or laughing.
- The main symptoms of bronchial asthma are also noticeable wheezing and whistling. Wheezing has certain characteristics:
- they often occur during physical exertion, emotional overexcitation;
- clearly audible during sleep and in a calm state;
- depending on the stage of the disease, the tone of wheezing is different.
By the nature of this symptom, the doctor can diagnose the severity of the disease.
Patients complain of a feeling of tightness in the chest. This symptom interferes with full chest breathing in bronchial asthma. This condition leads to the development of panic attacks.
A person is afraid to make an unnecessary movement or, on the contrary, rushes about, cannot find a place for himself. At this point, the patient needs to try to relax to quickly end the attack.
Other symptoms of the disease include:
- identification during auscultation of extraneous noise during inhalation;
- intermittent breathing;
- unwillingness to move, depressed state;
- inability to concentrate;
- biorhythm failure;
- sleep disturbance.
These symptoms can disturb not only adults, but also young children and adolescents. The intensity of asthma symptoms decreases after inhalation of a bronchodilator , but this should not be a reason for refusing medical help.
Asthma attack symptoms
Regardless of the nature of the disease, infectious or non-infectious, the patient is worried about the symptoms characteristic of an attack of bronchial asthma.
One can suspect the onset of the development of an attack by the warning symptoms. In particular, it can be increased irritability, weakness, anxiety, apathy or drowsiness. Such conditions can be observed for two to three days.
The external manifestations of the onset of an asthma attack include:
- redness of the skin of the face;
- nausea and vomiting;
- dilated pupils.
With bronchospasm, the following symptoms are noted:
- shortness of breath appears, there is not enough air. With an attack of bronchial asthma, breathing is disturbed, it is difficult to take a full breath. As a result, suffocation occurs;
- frequent dry cough, which is disturbing mainly in the morning or at night. Rarely, it ends in a small amount of sputum;
- whistling wheezing is heard against the background of heavy breathing.
Obstructive syndrome in bronchial asthma can manifest itself in the form of difficult exhalation with full inhalation. To facilitate breathing during bronchospasm, reduce the intensity of accompanying symptoms and better discharge of mucus from the bronchi during an asthma attack, the patient has to take a special position with an emphasis on his hands. Only with a fixed position is it possible to gradually normalize breathing.
Signs of asthma between attacks
During the period of remission in bronchial asthma, the symptoms of the disease can be almost invisible. Nevertheless, there are situations when the patient complains of dry cough, rhinitis and burning sensation in the throat.
If the patient has been suffering from bronchial asthma for many years, then some of the symptoms in the interictal period may appear more clearly.
This is due to irreversible changes in the tissues of the bronchi, leading to a decrease in their lumen. Often, painful shortness of breath does not leave patients.
Manifestations of bronchial asthma in children
Often inexperienced young parents do not pay attention to the first signs of bronchial asthma in their child. Because of this, the risk of developing a mixed form disease increases, which is difficult and is accompanied by complications.
Sometimes the clinic of bronchial asthma is blurred. Despite this, frequent acute respiratory viral infections and tonsillitis should be a cause for concern. Also, alarming signals are reactions to exposure to allergens – diathesis, skin rash and rhinitis.
The different stages of asthma combine the following symptoms:
- temporary difficulty breathing and shortness of breath, which most often occurs during sleep;
- paroxysmal cough. It may intensify in the morning and be accompanied by the discharge of clear sputum;
- wheezing or wheezing. This condition is aggravated by contact with an allergen, during physical exertion and emotional overexcitation;
- an asthmatic attack can be stopped using antihistamines.
In young children, the risks of developing the disease are higher, since the immunity has not yet been fully formed. This is also due to the narrow lumen of the bronchi, which is the norm for babies.
With the development of inflammation, the walls of the bronchi become thicker, and this entails an even greater narrowing of the lumens. A similar process provokes an attack of suffocation, which is impossible not to notice.
All parents should know what are the harbingers of choking in order to react in time and prevent the condition from worsening. It:
- increased body temperature;
- runny nose;
- general malaise.
These symptoms can appear at any time and indicate that the child will have a seizure over time.
If a child develops the first symptoms of asthma, then you should not self-medicate, since improper actions can only aggravate the condition.
The only right decision is to go to a doctor for an examination and receive the correct treatment. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the baby is registered. During treatment, periodic examinations are carried out to monitor the dynamics of the disease.
How to distinguish asthma from other diseases
The clinical picture and symptoms of bronchial asthma may resemble the manifestations of other respiratory diseases. For example, a similar symptomatology is observed in chronic bronchitis, which is also accompanied by coughing and breathing problems. The examination may also reveal that the patient has several diseases that give a picture similar to asthma.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor must be able to distinguish this disease from pneumonia, acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchi, tuberculosis, neurological pathologies, heart failure, and from a condition in which breathing is difficult due to a foreign object entering the respiratory tract.
- Bronchial asthma. Asthma symptoms: unproductive cough, choking. During coughing, a small amount of viscous transparent sputum may be released. This usually happens at the end of the attack. The condition is relieved after taking medications to expand the bronchial lumen.
- A common symptom of acute or chronic bronchitis is a mucus-producing cough. In some cases , an admixture of pus can be found in it . The acute form of the disease develops quickly, chronic is characterized by a long course. As with the signs of asthma, the body temperature does not rise much. The inflammatory process is detected by a blood test. Breathing becomes hard, wheezing may be heard.
- With pneumonia, coughing is also disturbing, only the amount of mucus secreted is greatly increased. In addition, the temperature rises. Characteristic signs also include shortness of breath, which does not cease to bother until recovery, chest pain and symptoms of intoxication.
- A distinctive feature of tuberculosis is a constant weak cough without disturbing the breathing process. Body temperature rises slightly and persists for three weeks or longer [M27] . The manifestations of the disease also include profuse sweating at night, consistent weight loss and lack of appetite.
- A sudden violent cough may occur if a foreign object enters the airway. Discomfort and pathological symptoms disappear after removing this item.
If the first clinical manifestations of the development of bronchial asthma are found, it is necessary to urgently consult a pulmonologist.
The diagnosis is established not only on the basis of complaints and examination of the patient. It is mandatory to carry out diagnostic procedures and laboratory tests. Only after this will the doctor be able to develop an effective treatment tactics.