Asthma occurs with the development of an inflammatory process in the bronchi. The pathology is chronic and cannot be completely cured. In asthma, the period of remission can be replaced by a sudden attack, which is a danger to the patient’s life.
To avoid complications and serious consequences, when stopping attacks of bronchial asthma, it is necessary to use special methods of stabilizing the patient’s condition and fast-acting drugs.
The mechanism of development of an attack of bronchial asthma and the main symptoms
Bronchial asthma is a disease that develops as a result of the inflammatory process in the bronchi, which occurs as a result of respiratory diseases, allergic reactions, smoking, poor ecology and taking certain medications.
Asthma refers to pathologies of the chronic type, therefore, even with prolonged remission, the patient periodically has attacks.
The danger of such exacerbations lies in the fact that asthma attacks occur abruptly and lead to suffocation, which is a consequence of spasm of the muscles of the bronchi. The development of spasm is accompanied by the release of a secretion that accumulates in the airways and prevents air from entering the lungs.
Bronchial asthma cannot be cured. Therapeutic measures for this disease are aimed at prolonging remission and shortening periods of exacerbation.
Supportive treatment includes reducing the impact of provoking factors, taking the necessary medications to prevent bronchospasm, adherence to a diet and timely help with attacks.
Seizures are usually caused by exposure to allergens. Cold air, stress, exercise, respiratory infections, or inhalation of air containing harmful substances (such as tobacco smoke or chemicals) can also trigger an exacerbation.
To prevent asphyxia, it is necessary to pay attention to signs of deterioration of the patient’s condition:
- severe shortness of breath;
- whistling and wheezing when breathing;
- a feeling of fullness in the chest;
- difficulty breathing;
- pallor and cyanosis of the skin;
- heavy and incessant cough.
In the absence of the necessary assistance for a long period of time, a person may lose consciousness if he suffocates . Death is not excluded due to lack of oxygen.
First aid for an attack
In patients with asthma, bronchospasm can occur with varying frequency and intensity. In some cases, you can cope on your own, but if the patient’s condition worsens, medical attention is required.
If a person is diagnosed with bronchial asthma, then the patient himself, as well as his relatives, should be aware of how to provide first aid in case of attacks. In order not to harm a person, a certain algorithm of actions should be followed.
First aid includes the following manipulations:
- put the patient on a chair;
- free the chest from clothing (to facilitate breathing);
- give an inhaler and other medicines;
- calm the patient down.
It is important to control the frequency of inhaler use, as choking causes panic, and the asthmatic person himself may use the aerosol too often. Overdose of drugs in this group is life-threatening.
After the first use in an attack of bronchial asthma, the repeated use of the inhaler is permissible only after 10 minutes.
In severe cases, when the listed actions do not work, they call an ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, the patient must be under constant supervision.
With a long wait for the medical team, it is necessary to dial the ambulance number and act according to the recommendations dictated by the specialist.
How to stop an attack
In order to avoid complications, it is necessary to stop the asthma attack as soon as possible. Lack of oxygen affects the entire body, so the consequences can be unpredictable.
Relief of an attack of bronchial asthma requires:
- rigid self-control of the patient at the time of the attack;
- the correct use of drugs.
Patients with bronchial asthma need to know all the steps to stop bronchospasm and try to control themselves to exclude panic. The condition can worsen at any time, and in the absence of help from the asthmatic, the person should be able to provide himself with first aid on his own.
An asthma attack involves the immediate use of a physician-recommended inhaler. In this regard, asthmatics should always carry the aerosol with them.
After using the drug, you need to sit down and try to calm down. To do this, you can take a light sedative and do breathing exercises. While the person is in a state of panic, the bronchial spasm will not stop.
Important! In case of asthmatic attacks, you cannot go to bed. The prone position will contribute to difficulty breathing, thereby aggravating the patient’s condition.
If the situation is not under control, an ambulance is called. The arriving specialists must administer the drug that relieves bronchospasm. In a serious condition, the patient may be hospitalized.
At the time of an asthma attack, the patient himself and the people nearby may panic, having performed a series of actions that can harm the patient.
- take a lying position;
- inhale essential oils;
- drink herbal infusions;
- do inhalation with herbs;
- put hot compresses on the chest;
- increase the frequency of inhalation;
- self-administer strong drugs;
- take medication without a doctor’s recommendation.
Preparations for relief of seizures
For the relief of attacks of bronchial asthma, drugs prescribed by the attending physician are used. The use of medications prescribed to another patient is contraindicated for asthmatics.
In most cases, asthma patients are prescribed a bronchodilator drug to relieve attacks , usually given by inhalation. Substances in this group include:
- adrenomimetics , for example, salbutamol or terbutaline , which quickly relieve spasms by expanding the capillaries and acting on the receptors of the muscles of the bronchi;
- M- anticholinergics , for example, ipratropium bromide, which has a relaxing effect on the muscle tissue of the bronchi.
To relieve spasms, it is recommended to take a medicine with an antihistamine effect to relieve puffiness in the bronchi, as well as antispasmodics that enhance muscle relaxation after inhalation with an aerosol.
Drugs containing epinephrine can be used to relieve a severe attack. Medicines of this group have a strong effect and have many contraindications, for this reason it is not recommended to use them on their own.
Important! Epinephrine and adrenaline for bronchial asthma are used by specialists and require exact adherence to the dosage. Exceeding the dose leads to serious side effects.
Asthma attacks are difficult to control. Choking can begin anywhere and anytime. Patients do not always have the right drug at hand. In such cases, it is desirable to be able to manage in other ways.
Important! If the attack is moderate or severe, you should not try to stop it without medication. You must immediately call an ambulance.
At home, you can stop an attack by simple means and ways:
- a small amount of ammonia is poured onto a cotton pad or napkin and, from a distance of 10 – 15 cm, the patient is allowed to inhale the drug vapors (do not bring the disc too close);
- rub onions or garlic or finely chop and, laying on a cloth, apply an asthmatic to the chest to facilitate breathing (it is important to exclude the allergic factor);
- they take hot water into the bathtub and bring the patient into the room for 5-10 minutes, moist hot air will help to relax the bronchi;
- very warm water is poured into the basin and the patient’s legs are lowered there, at this moment they do a light massage of the upper body;
- in a glass of warm water, soda is diluted (2 tsp) and 3 drops of iodine are added. Drink the liquid in four sips every 20 minutes;
- boil potatoes in a saucepan for 5-10 minutes, then remove the container from the fire and put it on the table, the patient sits over the saucepan and, covered with a towel, breathes hot steam.
After taking measures at home to relieve bronchial spasms, you need to contact your doctor for a follow-up examination and receive recommendations.
Respiratory complexes for asthmatics help to quickly eliminate the consequences of a lack of oxygen, have a calming effect and help to restore breathing during an attack.
After taking medications and reducing the intensity of symptoms, the patient is advised to perform basic exercises:
- Hands at the waist. Take a deep breath while inflating the abdomen. Exhale sharply. The stomach is pulled in.
- The palms are clenched and raised above the head. The patient stands on his toes, at the moment of exhalation, stretches up and sharply lowers his hands down, while getting up from toes to the foot.
- Hands clasp the chest, slightly pressing on the chest. Exhaling slowly, they pronounce the sounds ” brroh “, ” rrrr “, ” brrh ” and ” droh “.
- In a standing position, the arms are lowered and take a slow breath, raising the shoulders. At the time of lowering the shoulders, exhale with the simultaneous pronunciation of ” kha “.
To effectively perform breathing exercises, an asthma patient needs to know: the inhalation should be short and carried out through the nose, exhale through the mouth. You should also adhere to the rule of performing exercises to a count of four.
An attack of bronchial asthma in a child
Children with asthma have more severity than adults. At the moment of exacerbation, the correct behavior of the parents is important. Relatives should be as calm as possible, since the child will not be able to cope with his condition on his own.
Note! Parents do not need to call an ambulance only for mild asthmatic attacks in children. In severe cases, a doctor is required.
To relieve an asthma attack in children, you should:
- exclude contact with the allergen;
- take off clothes that hold your breath;
- put the child in a half-sitting position;
- try to calm the baby down;
- give water to drink (in small sips, but often).
In the first minutes, inhalers prescribed by a specialist are used to stop attacks of bronchial asthma. The child needs one dose of the drug every 20 minutes. The maximum number of inhalations is six.
Since the child is not always able to inhale the entire dose of the drug, it is advisable to use special nozzles that facilitate the flow of the drug directly into the throat.
It is not recommended to give any potent medicines or folk remedies to sick children. The exception is antihistamines if an allergic reaction has become a provoking factor.
Prevention of an attack of bronchial asthma
Disease of the bronchi requires constant adherence to preventive measures. People at risk are advised to take primary prevention measures that include eliminating the impact of negative factors that provoke the disease, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and strengthening the immune system.
Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for patients with bronchial asthma to reduce the frequency of attacks.
Preventive measures include:
- timely therapy for respiratory diseases;
- regular use of drugs prescribed by a doctor;
- daily exercise of breathing exercises.
Bronchial asthma can be very dangerous and have serious consequences. Correct relief of bronchial spasms will help reduce the likelihood of recurrent attacks and prevent complications.