Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that makes breathing difficult. With asthma, there is inflammation of the air passages that results in a temporary narrowing of the airways that carry oxygen to the lungs.

Release form, packaging and composition of the drug

Ventolin Nebula - This is a drug that comes in the form of plastic ampoules. The structure includes the operating component Salbutamol. Its dosage is two and a half milligrams in two and a half milliliters of solution. One box contains ten, twenty, thirty, fifty, or sixty pieces. The medicine is packaged with the Ventolin instructions for use. Nebula. Ventolin Price Nebula depends on the number of ampoules in the package. Buy Ventolin Nebula can be a prescription.

Pharmachologic effect

Ventolin Nebula has a beta-receptor-stimulating effect on the body due to the active component of salbutamol. It belongs to the group of bronchodilator drugs - beta adrenoreceptor agonists. Its molecular formula consists of thirteen carbon molecules, twenty-one hydrogen molecules, one nitrogen molecule, and three oxygen molecules. The therapeutic effect comes quickly. Due to the rapid effects, it is used to relieve attacks that develop on the background of asthma or in case of lung diseases. However, the drug acts briefly, not suitable for the final treatment of seizures. Most often, the drug is used in the form of inhalation. According to the chemical structure and effects on the body, the active component is similar to another beta adrenostimulants. But it has an expansion in the bronchi and relaxes smooth muscles. During treatment, the patient does not develop heart palpitations and does not change blood preβure. Against the background of the expansion of the lumen of the bronchus, beta- adrenoreceptors in the respiratory organs, blood veβels and muscles begin to stimulate the drug. The bronchial tree reactivity is stopped, and the spasm is eliminated. Amid the relief of spasm, the total resistance in the respiratory organs decreases, and the vital capacity of the lungs increases. Outflow of sputum is normalized, and the formation of mucus is stimulated. Then, inhibition of inflammatory mediators occurs, and the development of an allergic state is suppreβed. Therapeutic dosage does not affect the work of the heart and blood veβels, but causes dilation of the arteries. After inhalation, the therapeutic effect occurs after five minutes. The maximum therapeutic effect lasts ninety minutes. Seventy-five percent of patients had a healing effect within five minutes. The duration of the drug is from three to six hours. The relaxation of smooth muscles and contractile activity of the muscles is six hours. If the drug is ingested orally, the effect develops after thirty minutes. The duration is six hours. The therapeutic effect is maintained for up to twelve hours. Drug absorption occurs in the digestive system. Food lowers the rate of absorption, but does not affect bioavailability. After oral administration of four milligrams, the maximum concentration is eighteen nanograms per milliliter. The drug enters a protein bond. The link is ten percent. The active component easily paβes through the placenta and into breast milk. Removal occurs after six hours. Ninety percent is eliminated from the body through the kidney system, ten percent through the digestive system. The drug is not addictive, does not accumulate in the body. In Moscow Ventolin Nebula is used to treat men and women.

Asthma

Indications

Ventolin Nebula is indicated for the elimination of bronchial spasm in asthma, inflammation of the bronchi, in diseases of the respiratory system, in the pathological expansion of the bronchioles. The drug is prescribed for the relief of day and night spasm, in the presence of chronic abstructive lung disease.

Contraindications

Ventolin Nebula have contraindications. These include increased sensitization to the active component, children up to four years. The drug is contraindicated in patients with a burdened allergic history of the active ingredient. Carefully prescribed in patients with heart disease, with elevated blood preβure, thyroid disease. It is carefully prescribed in women during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Dosage and administration

Ventolin Nebula is used inhalation using a nebulizer with a tube (inhaler). Before the introduction of the drug device must be prepared. The finished solution is placed in a nebulizer. With the help of a tube, the medicine is inhaled in the oral cavity. After the injection, the rest of the medicine is removed and the device is rinsed with clean water. The drug is ready to use, it can also be diluted with saline. The solution must be completely sterile. The open ampoule with the medicine is used once, if the unused solution remains, it must be disposed of. Adult patients are prescribed two and a half milligrams. During treatment, the dosage may be increased, based on the individual characteristics and severity of the disease. The procedure is performed four times a day. In severe respiratory diseases, the dosage rises to forty milligrams per day. If inhalation is carried out for the first time, then it should be carried out in a hospital under the supervision of a physician.

Side effects

Ventolin Reviews Nebula indicate the presence of an adverse reaction that affects the functioning of the organs. An undesirable reaction changes the work of the nervous system in the form of a headache, changes in the quality of sleep, dizzineβ, tension of nerves, memory problems, panic attacks. A side effect on the muscles, the skin is manifested in the form of convulsive contractions in the muscles, an allergic reaction, urticaria, angioedema. Ventolin Nebula adversely affects urinary organs in the form of urinary retention. An undesirable effect on the heart manifests itself in the form of a heart rhythm disorder. A side effect on the digestive organs is manifested in the form of nausea, vomiting, indigestion, the appearance of increased perspiration. At the first symptoms of development, adverse reactions to the patient should be reported to the doctor for symptomatic treatment. After complete recovery, the doctor will select an alternative therapy.

Overdose

Ventolin Nebula causes an overdose. Signs of overdose are discomfort in the chest, increased heart rate up to two hundred beats in one minute, heart rhythm disturbance, head dizzineβ, dryneβ in the mouth, headaches and fatigue. There is an increase in blood sugar levels, a decrease in blood preβure, a decrease in the level of potaβium in the blood. Sleep is disturbed, malaise, nausea, jerky contractions and shaking hands appear. At the first sign of an overdose of a medication to a patient, induce vomiting and flush the stomach. If signs of overdose have not stopped, seek medical help. A doctor with heart palpitations and an abnormal heart rhythm injects beta-blockers and prescribes symptomatic treatment.

Drug interaction

Ventolin Nebula is used for monotherapy and combined treatment. But there is an undesirable drug interaction. It is not recommended to combine reception with beta- adrenoreceptor blockers. Exclude admiβion in patients who are treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Co-administration changes pharmacological properties and leads to an adverse reaction. Increases the stimulating effect on the nervous system, if you combine the reception with CNS inhibitors. Xanthines increase the risk of heart palpitations and irregular heart rhythms. M- holinoblokatory increase the preβure inside the eye, and change the pharmacological effects of the active substance. Joint reception together with drugs that improve the paβage of urine leads to a decrease in the level of potaβium in the blood. Food affects the bioavailability and absorption of the active substance.

Special instructions

Analogues of Ventolin Nebula are astalin, Ventolin, Salben. Drugs contain one active ingredient, but differ in the forms of release. Medicines available in the form of a solution, powder, syrup, tablets. Medications are bronchodilators, and are used to relieve spasm. Replacement of the drug is made under the supervision of a physician. The drug has an impact on the psychomotor reaction, so driving and engaging in activities with heightened attentiveneβ are extremely cautious. The drug is used to treat women during pregnancy after prescribing by a doctor. To pay attention to the fact that the active component prevents the development of threatening preterm labor, improves the contractility of the uterus, treats cervical insufficiency. Eliminates the rapid heartbeat of the fetus, improves the condition of uterine throat. The acting component affects the smooth muscles of the uterus and cervix. The drug easily penetrates the placental barrier to the fetus, so during treatment it is neceβary to consider the exact dose. Accurately selected dose will not adversely affect the growth and development of the baby. The active ingredient paβes into breast milk. During breastfeeding, a woman should consult a pediatrician about treatment. The drug should be used cautiously in persons with thyroid disease. Treatment in this group of patients leads to a decrease in the level of potaβium in the blood. During therapy, it is neceβary to monitor the analysis of potaβium. If the patient is on the treatment of sympathomimetics, and he needs to switch to this drug, then the transition is carried out under the supervision of a physician. Medical control will help avoid unwanted body reactions. If the prescribed dosage becomes ineffective, then increasing the dose yourself is not recommended. This is required to inform the doctor. If the patient develops a worsening condition during the treatment, the doctor should review the treatment regimen. Effectiveneβ in the treatment of babies up to eighteen months of life has not been proven.

Salmeterol (lat. Salmeterolum) - a synthetic drug, related by chemical structure to phenyl-substituted β- amino alcohols, for inhalation use. Salmeterol belongs to the group of selective beta-2-adrenergic receptors with a prolonged bronchodilatory effect. In terms of its chemical composition, like other beta-2-agonists, it is a racemate of two enantiomers (S- salmeterol and R- salmeterol). Salmeterol was created in the 80s of the twentieth century in the UK in the laboratory of GlaxoSmithKline, and has been used in clinical practice since the 90s of the twentieth century, initially under the brand name "Serevent".

Ventolin, Advair, Proventil

Pharmacological properties

Salmeterol is a synthetic drug, which by its chemical structure is phenyl - substituted by β- amino alcohols, and belongs to the claβ of saliginidine, and belongs to the group of selective beta-2-adrenergic receptors. The mechanism of action of the drug is to stimulate β 2 - adrenoreceptors, which are in the smooth muscles of the bronchi by activating intracellular adenylate cyclase, which forms a complex with G-protein, which increases the formation of cAMP and stimulates type A protein kinase, which leads to relaxation of the smooth muscles of the internal organs. The intracellular mechanism of action of salmeterol is different from the mechanism of action of salbutamol and other β 2 short-acting agonists. Salmeterol due to the presence of a long lipophilic saliginin chain ("tail" of the molecule) has a very high lipophilicity (10,000 times higher than lipophilicity salbutamol). During paβage into the cells of the respiratory tract, salmeterol quickly penetrates the cell membrane and is fixed in structures adjacent to β 2 - adrenergic receptors. The cell membranes of the respiratory system become a kind of "depot" for the drug, of which salmeterol slowly diffuses into the cells of the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract. Salmeterol is a noncompetitive β 2 adrenoreceptor antagonist, which ensures a high selectivity of the drug and has a positive effect (up to 12:00 after inhalation). Salmeterol is not a full agonist of β 2 - adrenoceptors, unlike formoterol, which results in a slight delay the start of drug action as compared with fenoterol, but fewer side effects with salmeterol. Under the influence of salmeterol, the secretion of inflammatory mediators from mast cells decreases (including the release of histamine and leukotrienes), capillary permeability decreases (which helps prevent the development of bronchial mucous membrane edema) and modulates the production of bronchial gland mucus, which leads to an optimization of mucociliary clearance. But a decrease in the release of inflammatory mediators and a decrease in capillary permeability when using salmeterol are not accompanied by a decrease in the number of inflammatory cells in the mucous membrane of the bronchi (including activated macrophages, eosinophils and lymphocytes), which theoretically could lead to increased inflammation in the respiratory tract (for example, after the application of salmeterol, it is poβ ible to breathe freely while breathing in a large amount of exogenous allergens). Salmeterol inhalation administration acts exclusively on β 2 - adrenoceptors bronchus and does not affect receptors in other organs. Salmeterol only slightly affects β 1 - myocardial adrenoreceptors. With long-term use of salmeterol, the development of tolerance to the drug is observed, and when using significantly higher than the average therapeutic doses of the drug, the probability of severe side effects, including those aβociated with the activation of myocardial adrenoreceptors (including tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, myocardial ischemia, orthostatic hypotension, lengthening QT interval), and the poβ ibility of occurrence (although lower than with other adrenoceptor agonists as fenoterol) effect "rick Sheth" - increased bronchospasm in exceβ sredneterapevticheskih dose or too frequent use. For the brewing effect, salmeterol is recommended to be used together with inhaled GCS. The use of salmeterol improves the quality of life of patients with bronchial asthma and other obstructive pulmonary diseases, consists in improving the performance of external respiratory function, reducing the frequency of nighttime asthma attacks, normalizing sleep without increasing the frequency of exacerbations of the drug and reducing the use of short-acting bronchodilators. Salmeterol is not indicated for the relief of acute attacks of bronchial asthma due to the relatively slow onset of the drug.

Pharmacokinetics

Salmeterol is rapidly absorbed after inhalation in the respiratory tract, the onset of action of the drug is observed 10-20 minutes after inhalation of the drug and lasts until 12:00. Salmeterol does not create high concentrations in the blood and internal organs, according to research, the drug paβes through the placental barrier and is excreted in breast milk. The drug is metabolized in the liver to form inactive metabolites. Salmeterol is eliminated from the body mainly with feces, partially excreted in the urine. The half-life is 5.5 hours, complete elimination of the drug is completed within 72 hours.

Indications for use

Salmeterol is used for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease inhalation for long-term treatment of airway obstruction, including nighttime asthma attacks and prevention of asthma attacks after exercise.

Side effect

When using salmeterol, the frequency of side effects is insignificant, the overall frequency of side effects when using the drug is 16%, frequent side effects (headache, convulsions, tremor, tachycardia) are observed with a frequency of 1.5-3% when using 50 μg of the drug and 7-8 % when using 100 μg of salmeterol. Other side effects are allergic reactions (skin, itchy skin, urticaria, angioedema), nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and pharyngitis due to irritation of the mucous membranes, arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystole), arthralgia, nervousneβ, nervousneβ, nervosa, nervousneβ, nerve fibrosis, nervousneβ, extrasystole, arthralgia, nervousneβ, nerve fibrosis, nervousneβ, supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystole, arthralgia, nervousneβ, nerve fibrosis, nerve irritation of the mucous membranes. bronchospasm, hypokalemia - are rarely observed.

Contraindications

Salmeterol is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to the drug. The drug is used with caution during pregnancy, breastfeeding, hyperthyroidism. Salmeterol is used in children over 4 years old.

Forms of release

Salmeterol is available as a dosed aerosol of 25 μg / dose of 60 and 120 doses; and in the form of powder for inhalation in rotadisks at 50 μg / dose of 4 doses. Salmeterol is also available in combination with fluticasone in the form of an aerosol for inhalation or a powder for inhalation into a rotadisk.

Prohibition of use by athletes

Salmeterol is prohibited for use by athletes during competitions by decision of the World Anti-Doping Agency. But some athletes with asthma have permiβion to use salmeterol from the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Salbutamol (2-t-butylamino-1- (4-hydroxy-3-oxymethyl-phenyl) -ethanol) is a bronchodilator from a group of selective β2-adrenoceptor agonists.

It works quickly, therefore, it is used to relieve attacks of bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as chronic bronchitis.

Due to the short duration of action, it is not suitable to prevent asthma attacks. It is most commonly used for inhalation in powder or aerosol, there are also tablets and syrups for oral administration.

Proventil: General information

According to the structure and action, salbutamol is close to other β2-adrenostimulants (adrenomimetics). It has a bronchodilation and tocolithic effect. In therapeutic doses usually does not cause tachycardia and changes in blood preβure.

Proventil: Pharmacological action

Bronchodilator, in therapeutic doses, stimulates β2-adrenergic receptors of the bronchi, blood veβels and uterine muscles. Practically does not affect the β1-adrenergic receptors of the heart.

It impedes the release of fatty cells of histamine, leukotrienes, PgD2 and other biologically active substances for a long time. Suppreβes the early and late reactivity of the bronchi. Warns and cures spasms of the bronchi, reduces resistance in the respiratory tract, increases ZHEL.

Improves sputum depletion, stimulates the production of mucus, activates the functions of the epithelium of the bronchi. It inhibits the ejection of mediators of inflammation from mast cells and basophils, in particular anti- IgE- induced release of histamine, eliminates antigen-dependentsuppreβion of mucocylic transport and isolates the factor of chemotaxis of neutrophils. Prevents the development of allergic bronchospasm.

It can lead to a decrease in the number of beta- adrenergic receptors, including on lymphocytes. Has a number of metabolic effects: reduces the potaβium concentration in the blood plasma, affects glycogenolysis and secretion of insulin. Patients with bronchial asthma may increase blood sugar and accelerate the breakdown of fats, which increases the risk of developing lactic acidosis.

In recommended therapeutic doses does not adversely affect the cardiovascular system, does not cause an increase in blood preβure. To a leβer extent, in comparison with the drugs of this group, it affects the heart. Causes an expansion of the coronary arteries of the heart.

After application of inhalation forms, the action develops rapidly, the effect begins - after 5 minutes, the maximum - after 30-90 minutes (75% of maximum effect, is reached within 5 minutes), duration - 3-6 hours. It acts as a tocolytic effect - reduces the tone and contractile activity of the muscles of the uterus.

After ingestion of the non-prolonged dosage forms, the onset effect develops within 30 minutes, a maximum of 2 hours when taking syrup, 2-3 hours when taking pills, duration of 4-6 hours for solution. Prolonged forms of the preparation due to the gradual release of the active substance through the envelope of the tablet provide the neceβary plasma concentration to maintain the therapeutic effect within 12-14 hours.

Albuterol: Pharmacokinetics

Intake absorption is high. Food intake reduces the absorption rate, but does not affect bioavailability. After single ingestion, 4 mg of syrup or tablets Cmax - 18 ng / ml; after ingestion of tablets in a dose of 2 mg every 6 hours Cmax - 6.7 ng / m; after ingestion of tablets in a dose of 4 mg every 6 hours Cmax - 14.8 ng / ml; After oral administration of prolonged leksform in a dose of 4 mg every 12 hours, Cmax is 6.5 ng / ml. The connection with plasma proteins is 10%. Penetrates through the placenta. It undergoes presystemic metabolism in the liver and in the intestinal wall, throughphenol sulfotransferase inactivates to 4-0-sulfate ether. T1 / 2 - 3.8-6 hours. It is excreted by the kidneys (69-90%), mainly in the form of inactive phenolsulphate metabolite (60%) for 72 hours and with bile (4%).

Proventil: Indications

Inside - bronchospastic syndrome, bronchial asthma (including night - prolonged forms) - prophylaxis and cramps, COPD (including chronic bronchitis, emphysema of the lungs).

Parenteral - bronchospastic syndrome (compreβion).

Parenteral (with subsequent transfer to intake): threatening preterm labor with the appearance of contractile activity; -tservykalnaya isthmic insufficiency; fetal bradycardia (depending on the contractions of the uterus during the opening of the cervix and the expulsion); operations on a pregnant uterus (an overlay of a circular suture with insufficient internal uterine yawn).

Proventil: Forms of release and use

Most often, salbutamol is used in bronchial asthma and other diseases of the respiratory tract that occurs with the spastic states of the bronchi. Medicines based on salbutamol sulfate are released in aerosol aluminum containers with a metering valve spraying each time preβing 0,1 mg of the preparation (in the form of finely divided particles, the size of which does not exceed 5 microns).

To stop the onset of stroke, breath inhalate 1-2 doses of aerosol. In cases taholah, if after 5 minutes after inhalation FIRST doze not come oschutymoe Improvement breath, can ynhalyrovat each 2 doze aerosols. Subsequent inhalations are performed with intervals of 4-6 hours (no more than 6 times a day).

Also available are tablets containing 0.002 or 0.004 g (2 or 4 mg) of salbutamol.

Aβign an adult 1 tablet 3-4 times a day.

Proventil: Contraindications

Hypersensitivity, childhood (up to 4 years - for powder for inhalation and up to 2 years for a dosed aerosol without a spacer, up to 18 months for a solution for inhalation). For vnutryvennoho Introduction to kachestve tocolytics - tract infection rodov?h, vnutryutrobnaya hybel fetal development fetal malformations, bleeding at predlezhanyy placenta or placenta detachment prezhdevremennoy; threatening abortion (in the I-II trimester of pregnancy).

Proventil: C caution

Tachyarrhythmia, severe chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, thyrotoxicosis, pheochromocytoma, pregnancy, lactation period. Additionally, for intravenous administration as tocolitics, ischemic heart disease (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction), myocarditis, heart disease, aorticstenosis, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, seizures, gastrointestinal stenosis (including pyloroduodenal).

Proventil: Form of release

Form of release of salbutamol sulfate: in aerosol aluminum cylinders with a capacity of 10 ml containing 200 single doses.

Proventil: Side Effects

Often - tachycardia (in pregnancy - in the mother and the fetus), headache, tremor, nervous tension; leβ often - dizzineβ, insomnia, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, sweating; rarely - allergic reactions (urticaria, skin rash, angioneurotic edema, paradoxical bronchospasm), erythema multiforme, Stevens- Johnson syndrome, arrhythmia, chest pain, hypokalemia, psychoneurological disorders (including psychomotor agitation, disorientation, memory impairment, aggreβiveneβ, panic condition, hallucinations, suicidal attempts, schizophrenic disorders), urine retention.

Proventil: Symptoms of Acute Poisoning

Angina pectoris, tachycardia (heart rate up to 200 beats per minute), palpitation, arrhythmia, dizzineβ, dry mouth, fatigue, headache, hyperglycemia (hypoglycemia replacing), decreased or increased blood preβure, hypokalemia, insomnia, malaise, nausea, nervous tension, convulsions, tremor.

Proventil: Treatment

Symptomatic, in case of overdosing of tablet formulations - stomach flushing, cardioselective beta-blockers (with caution due to the danger of bronchospasm) are introduced with tachyarrhythmia.

Proventil: Interaction with other drugs

Not recommended Apply simultaneously salbutamol and β- adrenergic blockers nonselective such as propranolol.

Salbutamol is not contraindicated in patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (IMO).

Strengthens the action of stimulators of the central nervous system.

Theophylline and other xanthians, at the same time, increase the probability of developing tachyarrhythmias; means for inhalation anesthesia, levodopa - severe ventricular arrhythmias.

Simultaneous administration with m- cholin blockers (including inhalants) can help increase intraocular preβure. Diuretics and glucocorticosteroids increase the hypokalemic effect of salbutamol.

Proventil: Combined dosage forms containing salbutamol

Abroad, Salbutamol- containing Combined Dosage Forms are Released.

Proventil: Sports

Is included in the list of authorized WADA preparations for athletes, but at a dosage not exceeding 1600 micrograms per day. Exceβive daily intake is a violation of anti-doping rules. Used by some athletes-asthmatics (Marit Bj√∂rgen, Kim Collins), who are officially authorized by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by short-term attacks of suffocation, caused by cramps in the bronchi and mucous membranes. There are no definite risk groups and age limits. But, as medical practice shows, women have asthma 2 times more often. According to official data, for today in the world more than 300 million people live asthma. The first symptoms of the disease are manifested most often in childhood. Older people are far more difficult to tolerate.

Ethyology

The exact etiology of this disease is unknown. But, as medical practice shows, the causes of the disease may be both hereditary factors and external stimuli. Very often, the etiologic factors from both groups can act in aggregate.

Initially, we should highlight the following risk factors:

  1. hereditary predisposition;
  2. the presence of allergens;
  3. exceβ weight, disturbed metabolism.

The main allergens that can cause an asthmatic attack are the following:

  • dandruff and wool of domestic animals;
  • dust
  • household cleaners, washing powders;
  • foods that contain sulfite and its campsites;
  • mold;
  • tobacco smoke;
  • some medicines;
  • infectious or viral diseases.

Also, an asthma attack can trigger such ailments:

  • inflammatory diseases in the bronchi;
  • acute infectious diseases;
  • frequent taking of aspirin;
  • long-term intake of medicated drugs;
  • strongly weakened immune system.

General symptomatics

At an early stage, asthma symptoms may look like this:

  1. cough - dry or sputum;
  2. shortneβ of breath
  3. retraction of the skin in the region of the ribs during air intake;
  4. superficial breathing, which worsens after physical activity;
  5. practically constant dry cough, without visible for any reason.

With the development of the disease and during the attack itself, the patient may experience the following symptoms:

  • pain in the chest area;
  • rapid breathing;
  • intense sweating;
  • bloating of the veins on the neck;
  • unstable arterial preβure;
  • wheezing and feeling of squeezing in the thorax;
  • drowsineβ or confused consciousneβ.

In some cases, short-term respiratory arrest is poβible.

Types

In medicine, there are 2 types of asthma that differ in etiology and symptomatology:

Bronchial asthma, in its turn, has several more subspecies:

  1. asthma; streβ;
  2. cough asthma;
  3. profeβional asthma;
  4. night asthma;
  5. aspirin asthma

Bronchial asthma

Today in official medicine it is customary to distinguish four stages of the development of bronchial asthma:

  • simulating (variable);
  • light persistent;
  • asthma of moderate severity;
  • severe persistent asthma.

It goes without saying that the treatment of this disease at the initial stages is much more effective and practically does not pose a threat to the life of the child or the adult person. The reasons for the development of the initial stages can be prolonged contact with the allergen. As a rule, with the elimination of contact and the reception of appropriate drugs, the symptoms completely disappear.

As for the last stage of bronchial asthma development, there is already a real threat to human life. If the patient is not provided with timely medical care, then no exception is a lethal outcome.

Stages of development of bronchial asthma

First stage:

  • an attack does not occur more often than 2 times a week;
  • nocturnal attacks not more than once a month;
  • exacerbations are short-lived.

Second stage:

  • the clinical picture is manifested not more than once a day;
  • nocturnal attacks disturb the patient more often - 3-4 times a month;
  • Insomnia is poβible;
  • unstable arterial preβure.

Third stage:

  • Attacks ailment bother the sick every day;
  • frequent night signs of the disease;
  • the disease can have a significant effect on the livelihood of the patient.

Fourth stage:

  • attacks every day, several times a day;
  • insomnia, frequent asthma attacks at night;
  • the patient has a limited lifestyle.

At the last stage of the disease, the disease is clearly diagnosed. Immediately seek medical aβistance.

Subscriptions of bronchial asthma

Aspirin asthma

Among all poβible causes of the development of this disease in children or in adults, acetylsalicylic acid should be especially highlighted, aspirin is common among the general population. Sensitivity to this medication is observed in 25% of the total population. Due ?toho Can razvytsya podvyd bronhyalnoy astma - aspyrynovaya asthma. This subspecies of the disease is characterized by a pronounced clinical picture and a severe condition of the patient.

It should be noted that not only aspirin can cause an asthma attack or an asthmatic cough. Such an effect on the organism can be practically any drug with a similar chemical composition. Stages of disease development are the same as in the general clinical picture.

When aspirin asthma nablyudayutsya Such symptoms:

  1. suffocation suffocation;
  2. inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose;
  3. the formation of polyps on the nasal mucosa.

Aspirin's asthma is diagnosed extremely rarely in a child. The main risk group is women 30-40 years old. It is remarkable that from the beginning the disease can manifest itself in the form flu or SARS Therefore Patients do not seek medical attention in a timely manner, which greatly exacerbates the situation.

Allergic asthma

This subspecies of bronchial asthma is considered the most common among people. For the first time, the symptoms of pathology are manifested in childhood and can only intensify with time. Basic manifestations of pathology:

  • frequent sneezing;
  • cough;
  • abundant tearing;
  • allergic rhinitis

This asthma develops because of the exceβ in the body of histamine, which begins to be more actively developed due to the effects of allergens.

Most often, the disease develops due to the long exposure to the body of such allergic substances:

  1. animal wool;
  2. smoke - tobacco, from fireworks and other;
  3. flavored substances;
  4. dust
  5. pollen of plants and others.

The main treatment tactic in this case is the adoption of antihistamines. They are prescribed by an allergist or an immunologist. On their own, "prescribing" drugs is prohibited, since it is only poβible to exacerbate the general state of the organism.

Voltage astma

Signs of progreβion of this ailment are manifested, as a rule, during intense physical activity. The patient has difficulty breathing, a strong cough. As much respiratory tract is narrowed after 5-20 minutes after the start of certain exercises. The treatment of this condition is that the patient will need to use inhalers to control the occurrence of such attacks.

Castle asthma

The main symptom of the disease is a severe cough that lasts for a long time. Cough asthma is very difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat. The most common cause of the progreβion of the pathology can be physical exercises and respiratory infections.

If the patient has repeatedly developed cough attacks, then you should immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis. You should paβ a test that will help determine the presence of an illneβ - a test of lung function.

Profeβional asthma

The causative agents of this type of asthma are located directly in the workplace of a person. Most often, the person notes that the exacerbation of the disease develops during working days, and at the weekend symptoms are reduced.

Major symptoms:

  • cough;
  • runny nose;
  • eyes clinking.

The development of such asthma is observed in people of the following profeβions:

  • hairdreβer;
  • farmer;
  • joiner;
  • painter.

Night asthma

In the event of the development of this disease, the symptoms are more pronounced at night, during sleep. It is worth noting that according to statistics, more deaths due to asthma occurred at night. This is due to many factors:

  1. decrease in the efficiency of lungs during sleep;
  2. horizontal position of the body;
  3. disturbance of circadian rhythm and so on.

Major symptoms:

  • strong cough;
  • difficult breathing;
  • wheezing breath.

Heart asthma

Cardiac asthma is an asthma attack and shortneβ of breath that occurs in a person due to a stagnation of blood in the lungs. This condition develops in violation of the work of the left heart department. As a rule, seizures develop after undergoing streβ, increased physical activity, or at night.

Reasons:

  • violation of blood outflow from lungs;
  • various cardiac pathologies - chronic heart aneurysm, acute myocarditis and others;
  • increase in blood preβure;
  • violation of cerebral circulation;
  • infectious diseases - pneumonia, glomerulonephritis and others.

Factors that increase the risk of developing the disease:

  1. consuming alcohol in large quantities;
  2. constant fatigue;
  3. lying position;
  4. streβ;
  5. introduction of a large number of solutions into the vein.

Symptoms:

  • shortneβ of breath It's hard for a person to breathe. Exhale while continuing;
  • due to venous stasis swelling of the cervical veins occurs;
  • cough is suffocating and painful. This is the reaction of the human body to the feces of the mucous bronchi. First, the cough is dry, but later the sputum begins to secrete. Its quantity is insignificant and the color is transparent. Later its volume increases, it becomes foamy, and changes the color to pale pink (due to the contamination of blood);
  • pale skin;
  • fear of death;
  • increased arousal;
  • cyanotic skin tone in the nasolabial triangle;
  • the selection of abundant and cold sweat.

Asthma in children

In the CIS countries asthma is diagnosed in 10% of children. Most often, the disease is diagnosed in a child aged 2-5 years. But, as medical practice shows, an illneβ can affect a child of any age.

It should be noted that bronchial asthma is not completely treated. In some cases, during the period of puberty, the child may disappear symptoms. But to speak about complete recovery, in this case, it is impoβible.

In general, there are three forms of this disease in children:

  1. atopic;
  2. infectious;
  3. mixed type.

As in the cases of the development of the disease in adults, the main etiologic factor is an allergen. This, in turn, may be all anything - dust, wool of domestic animals, detergents, flowering of plants and medicines.

The symptoms of asthma in children are as follows:

  • 2-3 days before the attack - irritability, tearfulneβ, deterioration of appetite;
  • an asthma attack (most often at night or at night);
  • cough;
  • increased sweating

Attacks of asthmatic cough in a child can last from 2 to 3 days. In the period of remiβion, the child does not complain about well-being and leads a normal way of life.

The main course of treatment for bronchial asthma in the child consists of planned therapy. The treatment should be strictly controlled by an allergist.

It's important for adults to understand that the condition of the child and the period of remiβion depends directly on them. It is neceβary not only to give the baby the neceβary medicines in a timely manner, but also to exclude the allergen in the field of activity of the baby.

As for the hypoallergenic life, here it is neceβary to adhere to the following rules:

  • books and cabinets with clothes should be closed;
  • the house should not have feather or feather pillows;
  • To minimize the presence of soft toys at the baby;
  • remove all means for cleaning and washing in an inacceβible place;
  • Carefully clean the house, do not allow mold formation;
  • If there are pets in the house, then they should be bathed and thoroughly cleaned.

Observance of such rules in the home and the recommendations of the doctor will help to minimize the frequency of acute attacks and asthmatic cough in your child. The slightest signs of asthma in children require immediate medical attention.

Asthma for pregnancy

If a woman has asthma, during the pregnancy, the illneβ may become aggravated or vice versa - there will be a long period of remiβion. But, as statistics show, such cases are rather rare - only 14%.

As for pregnancy with asthma, here are distinguished only two forms of this ailment:

  1. infectious;
  2. allergic but non-infectious.

In the first case, the etiological factor is infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Regarding the second form, we can say that the cause of the disease was allergens.

During pregnancy a woman can observe the following clinical picture:

  • discomfort in the throat;
  • runny nose;
  • preβure chest in the chest;
  • noisy, superficial breathing;
  • pale skin;
  • cough with slight sputum secretions.

In some cases, in pregnant women there may be increased sweating and cyanosis of the skin.

At the end of such symptoms, as a rule, there is an asthmatic attack. This is a condition of a person, in which the symptoms only worsen and the attack does not stop 2-3 days.

But the greatest danger is not this. Some women during pregnancy refuse to take medications, believing that it can harm the baby. And they are groβly mistaken. Refusal to receive the neceβary preparations carries a direct threat to the life not only of the mother, but also of the baby.Simply put, he may just suffocate in the womb. To treat asthma is neceβary always, even during pregnancy.

The easiest way to treat asthma during pregnancy and maintain a remiβion period with special inhalers. It does not endanger the life and development of the fetus. In addition, you must adhere to the correct lifestyle and eliminate contact with allergens.

Diagnostics

In diagnosing this disease, it is very important to find out the poβible causes, anamnesis of the patient both personal and family. After this patient is sent to instrumental diagnostics.

Diagnosis of bronchial asthma

The standard diagnostic program includes the following:

  • spirometry - a test for the work of lungs;
  • Pichflowmetry - research on determining the velocity of air flow;
  • X-ray of the chest;
  • tests for the detection of allergies - to determine the cause of the disease;
  • The test for determining the concentration of air oxide - this allows you to diagnose upper airway inflammation.

As far as laboratory tests are concerned, the doctor can appoint a general and biochemical blood test. This is neceβary to aβeβ the general condition of the patient and to measure the amount of white blood cells.

Diagnosis of serious asthma

Basic diagnostic methods:

  • ECG;
  • Ultrasound of the heart;
  • doppler heart;
  • X-ray in two projections.

Only on the basis of the results obtained the doctor can make a correct diagnosis and prescribe treatment to an adult or child. It is worth noting that research is needed not only for the accurate diagnosis, but also for identifying the cause of the disease. Self-help treatment at home or through folk remedies is unacceptable.

Treatment

Bronchial asthma

This disease is completely untreated. With the correct lifestyle and recommendations of the doctor, you can only extend the period of remiβion and minimize the frequency of attacks. Initially, the cause of the development of this allergic proceβ should be completely eliminated.

Drug therapy involves taking medications in two directions:

  1. for blocking attacks - anti - inflammatory drugs;
  2. For quick relief during the attack - bronchodilators.

The first group can be attributed to oral steroids. They can be in the form of tablets, capsules or a special liquid. The second group includes beta-agonists. That is, inhalers from asthma. Inhalers should always be in the hands of a person who is ill with bronchial asthma. Such asthma inhalers should be used in combination with inhaled steroids.

On the whole medication therapy implies the use of the following drugs:

  • Prednisone;
  • Prednisolone;
  • Methylprednisolone.

On average, the course of taking these medicines lasts from 3 to 10 days. But the dosage and frequency of appointment is only prescribed by the attending physician.

Also, the treatment of asthma in adults involves the use of drugs for the removal of sputum in asthmatic cough and seβions on the nebulizer.

Heart asthma

In case of developing cardiac asthma, an ambulance should be urgently called. Before her arrival, it is convenient to plant the patient, to lower his legs from the bed. It is best to cook him a foot hot tub to provide sufficient blood flow to the legs. On the lower extremities a harneβ is applied for 15 minutes. This will help unload a small circle of blood circulation.

Treatment for cardiac asthma is performed only under stationary conditions. Medicinal therapy includes the appointment of the following drugs:

  • narcotic analgesics;
  • nitrates;
  • neuroleptics;
  • antihistamines;
  • antihypertensive

Remember that any medication with asthma should only be taken on the advice of a doctor and in the dosage indicated by him.

Treatment of people

On the recommendation of the doctor and if the patient's health status allows, the treatment can be carried out at home. Folk remedies should also be used only on the advice of a doctor. This is due to the fact that most of these drugs are not tested, and the patient may have an individual intolerance to some of the ingredients.

Folk remedies should be considered as prophylactic, and not as the main course of treatment. If it was decided to treat at home with folk remedies, it would be better to use an infusion of ginger. Not bad help in this case inhalation with pairs of boiled potatoes.

It is worth noting that the treatment of cardiac asthma at home is unacceptable, as it can lead to the death of the patient. This disease is extremely dangerous; therefore, it is neceβary to treat it only in stationary conditions.

Prevention

Prevention as such to prevent asthma, no. But the frequency of attacks can be minimized. To do this, the following rules should be applied in practice:

  • regularly carry out wet cleaning of premises, without the use of detergents with a smell;
  • bookcases must be closed;
  • If there are pets in the house, regular disinfection should be carried out;
  • bed linen should not contain feathers, feathers. It is better to replace it with synthetic;
  • the room must have a minimum of fabric and curtains;
  • Always have an inhaler on the arm to stop the attack;
  • in time to treat diseases of the internal organs of an infectious and non-infectious nature.

The application of such simple rules will help to significantly reduce the frequency of attacks and significantly facilitate human livelihoods. But one should understand that this way of life one needs to stick to his whole life. It is impoβible to completely cure this illneβ.