Allergic asthma is a common type of ailment that occurs in patients with allergies. After entering the body, specific substances irritate the mucous membranes lining the respiratory tract. The immune system is activated, protective antibodies react even to harmless microorganisms. As a result, foci of inflammation are formed, symptoms characteristic of an allergic reaction appear.
Substances that provoke asthma enter the respiratory tract during breathing. The negative influence of external factors (temperature changes, inhalation of a strong odor, chemical compounds or smoke) is considered to be the reasons aggravating the general condition of the patient. The sooner the allergen is identified, the faster the recovery will come.
In the absence of timely treatment, the intensity of symptoms increases, and favorable conditions are created for the development of complications. Asthma of this type can appear in the history of the child and adult. This ailment has no age restrictions. At risk are patients who are prone to allergies. A significant cause for concern is an allergic reaction that manifested itself earlier.
Asthma is often confused with diseases in which the bronchi are affected. This is due to the similarity of their symptoms. In any case, treatment begins only after passing a diagnostic examination.
Causes of occurrence
An allergic reaction is indicated by the appearance of skin rashes and itching. Ignoring negative symptoms is fraught with the appearance of asthmatic attacks and anaphylactic shock. Allergens are classified into several categories, including:
- Allergens localized in the room. Pets, insects, fungi can become their source.
- Provocateurs in open space. This list contains polluted air and pollen.
- Food. Antigens can be found in eggs, honey, certain vegetables and fruits, milk, strawberries, peanuts, and seafood.
An allergic reaction provoked by food irritants is least often recorded. It is quite difficult to cope with malaise at home, so when the first symptoms appear, you need to call a doctor. If acute respiratory failure occurs, the patient is urgently hospitalized.
Due to the body’s hypersensitivity to the allergen, the attack develops very quickly. The disease progresses when the following factors are present:
- infectious pathologies of the respiratory system;
- bad habits;
- bad ecology;
- improper nutrition;
- asocial lifestyle;
- long-term drug therapy.
Heredity matters too. Asthma is not spread from parent to child. Perhaps only the appearance of a predisposition to the development of the disease.
Based on the modern classification, several degrees of severity of atopic asthma are distinguished , among them mild, moderate and severe. From the acute phase to a chronic disease, it can pass in the autumn-summer period.
If an allergen has entered the body of a patient suffering from asthma, symptoms such as:
- painful sensations in the abdominal cavity;
- discomfort in the chest;
- increased breathing;
- runny nose;
- bronchospasm ;
- wheezing in the lungs.
Allergic asthma symptoms increase in intensity in the afternoon. The clinic differs depending on the type of ailment. Intermittent asthma is rare. Persistent ailment is activated much more often. This causes sleep problems.
Atopic asthma of moderate severity provokes the appearance of general malaise. At this stage, the therapeutic scheme necessarily includes measures to prevent the development of serious complications. In severe cases, asthma attacks occur both during the day and at night. The patient practically does not rest, due to which there is a disability. The most dangerous of these is progressive allergic asthma. In this case, the patient develops resistance to medications, which are usually used to stop an attack.
Diagnostic examination for allergic asthma begins with a survey and external examination of the patient. At this stage, the doctor identifies the symptoms that have arisen. The next step is laboratory testing. The patient is referred for the following procedures:
- blood test for immunoglobulins;
- allergy tests ;
- clinical study of urine;
- general and extended blood count;
- sputum microscopy;
- bacterial sowing .
At the third stage of diagnosis, the patient is prescribed a chest X-ray and an ECG. With the help of the latter method, diseases of the cardiovascular system are excluded. When symptoms characteristic of atopic asthma appear , the patient should visit a therapist, allergist and pulmonologist. The child is examined by a pediatrician.
Treatment of the disease
It is strictly forbidden to treat allergic asthma at home. The therapeutic scheme is prescribed by the attending physician. He makes a decision, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient and the type of allergen. One of the main methods is allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Asthma treatment is carried out as follows: a diluted allergen is injected under the skin of the patient. As a result of multiple injections, the risk of negative symptoms is reduced. This phenomenon is called specific hyposensitization . The doctor must make adjustments to the diet and drinking regime. Diet is an essential part of the therapeutic complex.
Status asthma is the most severe form of the disease, in which medications do not have the desired effect. While in this state, the patient may suffocate. The illness leads to dizziness and loss of consciousness. Disability can result from such an attack.
To cure asthma, a set of therapeutic measures is used. It includes a medication course, physiotherapy procedures, breathing exercises and methods of alternative medicine. The first step is the elimination of the allergen. On the second, manipulations are carried out, the purpose of which is to increase and strengthen the patient’s immune system. Through combination therapy, blocking antibodies are produced in the body.
Humidity in living quarters for asthmatics should be no more than 50%. For this, special humidifiers are often used. In addition, in order to achieve recovery, you must at home:
- remove blackout curtains and carpets;
- keep windows and doors closed during flowering;
- use air conditioners with filters that can be replaced.
Allergic asthma is treated with the following medications:
- Terbutaline , Salbutamol , Fenoterol – relieve suffocation;
- Tayled , Intal – stop the inflammatory process;
- Oxis , Pulmicort , Serevent – eliminate clinical symptoms.
The therapeutic regimen includes glucocorticoids , blockers that have a long-term effect. Antiallergic and hormonal agents are also used. When treating allergic asthma, the medicine is inhaled into the airways. The drugs used for this procedure are highly effective and have a minimum number of side reactions. Medicinal compositions are sold in the form of aerosols, sprays and tablets.
Unconventional methods for the treatment of bronchial asthma are selected by a doctor. The patient’s condition is improved with the help of decoctions prepared on the basis of the following medicinal herbs:
- wild rosemary;
- mother and stepmother;
- Jerusalem artichoke.
A mixture of components such as hydrogen peroxide (35 drops) and water (100 mg) is also used. The folk remedy is taken 30 minutes before breakfast.
The prognosis depends on the diagnosis (type of sensitization, degree of obstruction, intensity of clinical manifestations) and the severity of the general condition. The sooner treatment is started, the faster the work of the respiratory system will be restored. If you ignore the disease in the patient’s history, serious complications appear.
There is no specific prophylaxis by which the development of asthma can be avoided. To prevent an ailment caused by an allergic reaction, you should:
- regularly clean and ventilate living quarters;
- exclude contact with allergens;
- timely take medications with antihistamine properties;
- live a healthy life;
- do sport;
- Healthy food;
- timely treat infectious pathologies;
- undergo a medical examination annually.
People suffering from bronchial asthma should carry an inhaler with them.
In the absence of an effective therapeutic regimen, a patient with a history of atopic asthma develops negative consequences.
The list of possible complications includes:
- rupture of the alveoli;
- asthmatic status;
- emphysema of the lungs;
- pulmonary heart failure.
Emphysema of the lungs
Asthma is a disease that can lead to death. With strict adherence to the doctor’s recommendations, recovery occurs after the end of the main therapeutic course. Allergic asthma should be treated under medical supervision.