Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disease that tends to be chronic. The main clinical feature of such a pathological process are recurring bouts of shortness of breath and suffocation. It is believed that this pathology occupies a leading position among all violations of the respiratory system. For the first time, people of any age can come across it.
According to statistics, at the moment there are about three hundred million people in the world who suffer from bronchial asthma. It is worth noting that the children’s age group is faced with such disorders more often than adults. At the same time, the danger of this pathology lies in the fact that without timely medical care during the outbreak of an attack, there is a rather high risk of death. In addition, this pathological process can lead to many other complications, such as emphysema.
The mechanism of development of asthma is that a chronic inflammatory process is formed in the wall of the bronchi. Most often, its development is triggered by an allergic predisposition to any substances. However, in some cases, respiratory failure may also be associated with non-allergic factors. As a result of chronic inflammation at the slightest contact of the body with an irritating substance, a rapid narrowing of the bronchi is formed. At the same time the developing obstruction can have several reasons. The first reason lies in the fact that the wall of the bronchi increases swelling, leading to their narrowing. In addition, there is the likelihood of spasm of smooth muscles. The second mechanism of obstruction is represented by excessive mucus production, which clogs the bronchial lumen. With a long course of the pathological process, a third mechanism can be implemented, consisting in the replacement of muscle tissue in the wall of the bronchi with a connecting one.
As mentioned earlier, the most common asthma has an allergic origin. As a result, in most cases, various external or internal allergens act as provoking factors for the development of an attack. These may include various gases, dust, pet dander, drugs, food, detergents and cleaning products, plant pollen, and so on. In some cases, a chronic inflammatory process may be due to the presence of infectious agents in the body. In this case, an allergic reaction is a consequence of the release of bacterial products from bacteria. In addition, their role in the development of this disease play:
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Frequent stress;
- Systematic smoking;
- Diseases of the respiratory system of various etiologies;
- Unbalanced nutrition.
Depending on the cause of development, bronchial asthma is divided into two fundamentally different types: allergic and non-allergic. The development of an allergic species is associated with the presence in the body of hypersensitivity to any substance. In non-allergic form, non-allergic substances, such as tobacco smoke, act as a provoking factor. In addition, emit another species, which is called unspecified. It is established in the event that the cause of such a disease cannot be identified.
Respiratory failure in bronchial asthma
Depending on how often there are exacerbations, this pathological process is divided into several degrees of severity:
- First degree – intermittent
Characterized by the occurrence of attacks no more than once a week. It is characteristic that such attacks have a short duration and develop gradually. Choking at night occurs no more than twice a month. The peak expiratory rate in this case is more than eighty percent of the normal rate;
- Second degree – mild persistent
The disease is exacerbated more than once a week, but not more than once a day. At night, shortness of breath occurs two to three times a month. Peak expiratory flow rate is also over eighty percent;
- Third degree – medium persistent
Breathing is disturbed every day or almost every day. Marked night attacks more than once a week. A characteristic feature is a decrease in the level of physical activity, general weakness and sleep disturbance. Peak expiratory flow rates range from sixty to eighty percent;
- Fourth Degree – Severe Persistent
Asthma attacks occur daily during the day and several times a week at night. The normal way of life of a sick person becomes almost impossible. The peak expiratory flow rate does not exceed sixty percent.
The main symptom of asthma are asthma attacks. Such seizures are usually preceded by severe sneezing and heavy discharge from the nasal cavity. After a while, breathing is disturbed. The important point is that the inhalation process is impeded, while the exhalation becomes longer. On the background of the attack marked squeezing in the chest, cough, as well as loud wheezing while breathing.
Treatment of bronchial asthma
Of the drugs for the relief of an attack can be used:
- Beta adrenomimetics;
- Aerosol glucocorticosteroids;
- Xanthine derivatives.
In addition, mucolytic and expectorant drugs are widely used, as well as antibacterial agents when attaching secondary inflammatory diseases in the respiratory system.
The main way to prevent the onset of seizures is to avoid substances that can trigger them. In addition, you should quit smoking and promptly treat emerging infectious diseases in the body.