Pneumonia is a focal infiltrative ailment in which the destruction of the lung tissue occurs. It can be caused by viruses, fungi and bacteria. Both the upper and lower segments of the main organ of the respiratory system are in the affected area. With an advanced form, the disease captures the entire lung. It is quite difficult to determine pneumonia at home.
In the clinical picture of adults and children (regardless of the etiology of pneumonia), pulmonary and extrapulmonary symptoms are present. If they are ignored, infants, adolescents and other patients develop irreversible pathological changes. To confirm the differential diagnosis in inpatient conditions, the patient is prescribed additional clinical studies.
By means of them, the type of the causative agent of pneumonia, the rate of sedimentation of red blood cells, and darkening in the lung tissue are determined. The obligatory stage of the diagnostic examination is the consultation of the therapist and the pulmonologist. With SARS, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause.
Can pneumonia be diagnosed at home
Symptoms that appear with pneumonia are similar to those of other colds. The clinical picture directly depends on the pathogen. Bacterial pneumonia can be acute and gradual. If the ailment was provoked by mycoplasma , its manifestations are of low intensity.
Differential diagnosis excludes the likelihood of developing acute bronchitis, ARVI, tuberculosis, influenza, laryngitis and other infectious pathologies of the respiratory system. Despite the similarities, each of them has its own characteristics. With the progression of bronchitis, moderate fever, severe cough (first dry, then wet), seizures, as a result of which viscous sputum are separated, are observed. Obstruction of the bronchi is often accompanied by sore throat and sore throat, runny nose.
Tuberculosis provokes hemoptysis, excessive sweating, weight loss, and general weakness. The enlargement of the lymph nodes is often recorded. Signs of laryngitis include hoarseness and a barking cough. To eliminate the inflammatory process that occurs with pneumonia, medications, physiotherapy procedures and traditional methods are used. Infusion therapy is prescribed in severe cases.
Differential diagnosis is a necessary step. Thanks to her, the prescribed treatment will give the maximum effect. When passing a clinical study, the doctor step by step excludes colds, the signs of which have not been identified. The doctor takes into account the information indicated in the card, listens to the patient’s complaints.
It is not recommended to make diagnostics yourself, as the probability of an error is too high.
In the hospital, pneumonia is determined by X-ray, ultrasound and computed tomography. With pneumonia, the interstitial pattern on the surface of the lungs changes. Violations of this type are absent only at the initial stage of pneumonia. In this case, there is a need for additional research.
Finding out whether pneumonia is present at home without an instrumental examination will not work. Special skills are required when working with portable equipment. It is impossible to carry out a complete diagnosis without a doctor. With the progression of infiltrative deviations, the patient’s condition deteriorates significantly. An increase in the intensity of clinical manifestations indicates a lack of effective therapy.
Home Diagnostic Techniques
To recognize pneumonia at home, you must follow a diagnostic algorithm. The patient should pay attention to all the symptoms that have arisen. With pneumonia in a patient , the clinical picture contains:
- painful sensations in the chest area;
- redness of the skin;
- decreased ability to work;
- constant fatigue;
- dyspeptic disorder;
- severe wet cough;
- weakness in the whole body.
There are several types of pneumonia. With a focal form, the disease develops slowly. The affected area is limited to certain segments. The temperature usually does not exceed 38 degrees. Sputum contains blotches of blood and pus. Discomfort appears when inhaling and during coughing fits.
Croupous pneumonia means bilateral lung damage. This type of disease is considered the most dangerous. Infectious disease can also be right-sided, left-sided, congestive, lobar, aspiration and atypical. The latter form is distinguished by the appearance of specific clinical manifestations. Aspiration pneumonia runs latently, therefore, it is strictly forbidden to detect it at home. The severity of pneumonia is determined based on the intensity of the symptoms. Therefore, you should not refuse the help of narrowly specialized specialists.
Pathogenic microorganisms give impetus to the development of the inflammatory process. The situation is aggravated by the negative impact of external and internal factors, among them:
- chronic diseases;
- a weakened immune system;
- physical and (or) emotional stress;
- mechanical injuries;
- lack of timely therapy.
At home, a patient suffering from pneumonia can use only two diagnostic methods. Through physical examination revealed:
- respiratory failure on the part of the affected organ;
- strong tremors in the voice;
- wheezing in the lungs;
- signs of a fever;
- shortening of percussion sound in damaged segments;
- toxic shock;
- pleural murmurs;
- heavy shallow breathing.
In juvenile patients, pneumonia is caused by pneumococci and chlamydia. Atypical pneumonia causes swollen lymph nodes and muscle discomfort. Percussion and auscultation should be performed in full accordance with standard guidelines. In the absence of knowledge and experience, it is strictly forbidden to conduct them independently.
Wheezing occurs during breathing. Their blistering depends on the lumen of the affected bronchi. A moist cough develops due to the accumulation of bronchial secretions. In healthy people, when listening to the lungs, only clear sounds can be detected.
Even at the initial stages of the inflammatory process in the airways, the diagnostic scheme consists of several stages. Among them, collection of anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory tests, instrumental research. Therefore, if alarming symptoms appear, you should immediately contact a medical institution.
Pneumonia is a dangerous disease accompanied by crepitus. This is the name of the process as a result of which a liquid substance appears in the alveoli. Because of this, gas exchange worsens, oxygen starvation occurs. Partial dysfunction of the lungs causes disturbances in the functioning of other vital organs.
To make a diagnosis, there is not enough data that is obtained using physical research methods and external examination. Medical examination is a prerequisite, if not observed, it is impossible to determine the exact cause of the ailment. Full diagnostics can be carried out only in a hospital with the necessary equipment.