Pneumonia is an infectious and inflammatory disease, with the development of which the parenchyma of the lungs is affected. Mycoplasma pneumonia is an atypical type of pathology and is difficult. The disease is difficult to treat and can cause a number of complications, so self-medication is out of the question. If you suspect pneumonia, you should go to the hospital, undergo diagnostics and a conservative course of treatment.
Features of symptoms
Pathology is slow. The first signs become noticeable 5-8 days after infection. With the progression of the disease, the symptoms become more pronounced. The patient manifests:
- Fast fatiguability.
- Runny nose.
- Dry cough.
- Muscle fragility.
- Temperature 37-38 ° C.
The first signs of the disease are similar to the common cold. At first, there may be slight weakness, drowsiness, apathy. Later, with mycoplasma pneumonia, other symptoms appear:
- Body temperature 38-39 ° C (does not go astray for several days).
- Hacking cough.
- Sore throat when eating and drinking.
The main distinguishing feature of the development of mycoplasma pneumonia from other types of ailment is the appearance of specific signs a week after infection:
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Body temperature 40 ° C.
- Hemoptysis when coughing.
- Muscle pain.
- Chest pain.
If left untreated, the cough can get worse and cause complications. Often, the symptoms of pathology are confused with the common cold and do not give special attention to this. Until the disease develops into a severe form. Do not delay treatment. If the patient has a fever or chest pain, you should go to the hospital. Small children are also susceptible to infection, so if a rash, cough, or temperature appears, you should consult a pediatrician.
Causes of occurrence
The disease can develop for various reasons. There are three types of mycoplasma:
- Ureaplasma of the type of spices . It is diagnosed most often in girls and women. Rarely seen in men. Bacteria live on the mucous membrane of the genitals and urethra. With the blood flow, microorganisms move from the genitals to the lungs. This type of pathology is rare.
- Ureaplasma type parvum . It is observed in males. You can get infected through oral-genital contact. The microorganism is normally found in a minimum amount on the female genital organs.
- Ureaplasma of the genus urealiticum . The most dangerous type of pathogenic microorganisms that provoke an acute form of mycoplasma pneumonia.
Each species can enter the body with a weakened immune system or non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. After infection, the first signs become noticeable after a few days. In children, the symptoms may not be pronounced at first. The first signals will be a fever and cough.
If signs of pneumonia appear, you need to see a doctor. On examination, the doctor will listen to the patient and identify dry or wet wheezing. A chest x-ray will not help determine the disease. The device will show that the lungs are inflamed and enlarged. Various diseases can lead to this symptom. Therefore, in order to identify this type of pathology, the patient must pass certain tests.
Linked immunosorbent assay
When mycoplasma enters the body, immunity provokes the production of antibodies that fight against pathogenic microorganisms. The acute form of the disease in the analyzes shows the presence of IgM . It can be found in the blood as early as the first week of infection. The maximum rates are reached at 3 weeks of disease progression.
In the blood, IgG antibodies are produced at 4 weeks of illness. Their presence in the blood may indicate that a person has previously suffered an ailment.
The ELISA test is taken twice: in the first week of development, 2 weeks after the first test. The analysis shows the most accurate results in the first 7 days of infection.
Polymerase chain reaction
PCR in diagnostics began to be used not so long ago. The analysis helps to identify the DNA of mycoplasma pneumonia in the patient’s body. The test is done by taking a sputum sample.
General blood analysis
When diagnosing, if there are pathogenic organisms in the blood, the following will be identified:
- Leukocytosis or leukopenia.
- High lymphocyte count.
- High erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
In the acute form of pathology, anemia or thrombocytosis may develop. ELISA and PCR analysis are the only ways to correctly diagnose pathology.
Severe mycoplasma pneumonia is treated with antibiotic drugs. However, not every antibiotic is able to cure the problem. Mycoplasma is an intracellular parasite that infects lung tissue. Therefore, it is possible to destroy parasites only with the help of tetracycline-type antibiotics and macrolide groups .
Doxycycline , which belongs to the group of tetracyclines, is used in therapy . The drug is available in the form of 100 mg tablets. Small children are prescribed drugs of the macrolide group . They can be given to a child from the first years of life. This group includes: Erythromycin, Clarithromycin , Azithromycin .
To prevent the development of the disease, it is recommended to follow simple preventive measures:
- Strengthen the immune system regularly.
- Leading a healthy lifestyle.
- Quitting bad habits (smoking, alcohol, drugs).
- Taking vitamins.
- Active lifestyle.
- Good sleep (at least 7-8 hours a day).
- Switching to a balanced diet.
- Regular walks in the fresh air.
- Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene.
Mycoplasma is a pathogen that can lead to serious complications. Therefore, you should not delay treatment and go to the hospital on time. A timely visit to a doctor will help to avoid serious consequences.
Sometimes, with the progression of the disease, the pathogen is capable of affecting the central nervous system of a person, the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, and the epidermis. A rash similar to an allergic reaction may appear on the dermis.
With the development of mycoplasmosis, the following complications are possible:
- Meningoencephalitis .
- Transverse myelitis.
- Cerebellar ataxia.
- Brain stem damage.
- Bell’s palsy.
Usually complications can be noticed after the first week of the development of the disease. Hematological complications are also possible: anemia, thrombocytopenia, poor blood clotting.
In rare cases, the following complications can be diagnosed:
- Monoarthritis .
In a severe course of the disease, the patient is prescribed drugs of the glucocorticoid group . The dosage and duration of admission are determined by the attending physician. It is forbidden to take medications without the knowledge of the doctor, this can worsen the patient’s well-being.
Mycoplasma is a pathogen that provokes the development of bronchitis and pneumonia in children and adults. Due to the fact that the symptoms of the disease are similar to common diseases, it is impossible to identify mycoplasma pneumonia only by external signs. Therefore, a thorough diagnosis and additional tests are required to confirm the diagnosis.