Pneumonia, or pneumonia, is an infectious disease of the respiratory system. Usually a healthy or relatively healthy person gets pneumonia 1-2 times in their entire life. With a recurrence of the symptoms of the disease, after a complete cure, we can talk about a relapse of the disease. This pneumonia is called recurrent pneumonia.
The problem of recurrent pneumonia is especially relevant for children and the elderly. The risk group also includes people with chronic diseases: bronchial asthma and concomitant pulmonary obstruction, HIV-infected, diabetics, cancer patients.
Reasons for re-pneumonia
There are several definitions of recurrent pneumonia in the medical literature. In pediatrics, it is defined as two or more cases of the disease in a calendar year, or more than three episodes in an unlimited period of time. In this case, the relapse of the disease is confirmed by radiography, where the release of the lung tissue during infiltration is visible.
Pulmonologists, in addition to radiography, draw attention to the clinical picture – several cases of the disease with severe body temperature, leukocytosis and the production of purulent sputum.
The reason for the return of the disease is the insufficient efficiency of the immune system, which turned out to be unable to completely destroy the virus that caused the initial infection.
Possible complications can be caused by:
- bacillus pneumococcus or staphylococcus aureus;
- influenza virus;
- aerobic and anaerobic infections and bacteria;
- high mental stress and stress;
- depletion of the resources of the nervous system;
- sleep problems and frequent overwork;
- bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
- problems with the work of the kidneys and liver;
- problems with the work of the cardiovascular system;
- autoimmune diseases;
Recurrence of the disease can be confused with superinfection and coinfection . Superinfection is a situation when pneumonia is complicated by one or more pathogenic microorganisms. Against the background of worsening symptoms, there is an immunity to drugs of a certain spectrum of action.
Coinfection is a combination of several diseases caused by different pathogens and not related to each other. Most often it is illustrated by the example of diabetes mellitus, the presence of which significantly complicates the process of treating pneumonia.
The clinical picture, first of all, consists of a number of general signs that appear during the first week of repeated illness:
- dry cough;
- aching limbs.
In addition to the general ones, symptoms and complaints of the patient that are more familiar for this diagnosis soon appear:
- increase in body temperature, return of attacks of fever;
- intense intoxication, sweating;
- secretion of mucus with a characteristic unpleasant odor when coughing.
Against the background of a weakened immune system after an illness, these symptoms are re-tolerated by the patient much more heavily in comparison with the first illness.
Diagnostics of the condition in case of suspected repeated pneumonia is carried out both at the doctor’s office and in the laboratory. First of all, the patient is sent for a number of tests – for example, blood OA, which determines the severity of the spread of the infection, the number of leukocytes and ESR.
When confirming the diagnosis, the diagnostic results will be as follows:
- when listening to the lungs, wheezing and hard breathing are again observed, a percussion sound specific to this disease;
- with X-ray, an increase in infiltration is observed, and more than one focus of inflammation can also be diagnosed;
- during bacteriological examination, a previous infection may be detected.
What treatments are there
The treatment of recurrent pneumonia requires special therapeutic tactics, combining compulsory hospitalization in a hospital and a course of specialized drugs. Treatment is often complicated by the immunity of pathogenic microflora to a number of drugs that were actively used earlier.
To create a new treatment program, a thorough analysis of the previous one is carried out, the reasons for the unsuccessful attempt to eliminate the pathogen are determined. At the end of the treatment, physiotherapy is applied.
There are three groups of drugs that are actively used for recurrent pneumonia:
- anti-inflammatory .
Depending on the pathogen, the following drugs may be prescribed:
- with pneumococci – macrolides, penicillins, cephalosporins, lincosamides ;
- with staphylococci – macrolides and Syntomycin;
- if the causative agent is Pseudomonas aeruginosa – Tetracycline.
The inability to make treatment with folk remedies effective is due to the viral nature of the disease, against which herbal decoctions and tinctures are powerless. Patient’s persistence, refusal to go to the doctor, without which even an accurate diagnosis is impossible, reluctance to take medications are fraught with loss of time and the risk of serious complications.
Successful treatment can only be guaranteed through a course of antibiotic treatment under the supervision of a specialist.
Disease prevention is the provision of a proper recovery period from illness. Even a month after being discharged from the hospital, it is necessary to adhere to the most sparing working regime. If you are busy at night, it is recommended that you take a long vacation or change your job. Rest time should not be less than 6-7 hours a day, 1.5-2 of which, especially in the first months after illness, should be in the daytime.
It is necessary to give up bad habits and a new diet rich in vitamins. If possible, it is recommended to introduce daily walks in the fresh air into the daily routine .
In the absence of timely treatment, the consequences of pneumonia can be unpredictable, even fatal. The most common complications of pneumonia are dysbiosis, pleurisy, severe respiratory distress, abscess and pulmonary edema.
Dysbacteriosis occurs due to a violation of the intestinal microflora by exposure to antibiotics. Long-term use of such drugs leads to disruption of the pancreas and secretory function.
In some cases, pneumonia is one of the causes of pulmonary infarction, leading to fibrosis of the lung tissue.
People with a weak immune system and people under constant stress are at risk of contracting pneumonia again. Clinical manifestations are due to the causative agent that caused the disease, and have more pronounced symptoms compared to the first case of the disease. Diagnostics, as well as further treatment, are prescribed only by a doctor. Self-medication is unacceptable. For prevention, it is recommended to create conditions for restoring immunity and maintaining rest conditions and limiting physical activity. Neglect of these rules entails the emergence of a number of complications – from bronchial asthma to pulmonary infarction.