The inability of the respiratory system to provide the normal composition of the gases in the arterial blood is called respiratory failure. In other words, respiratory failure is defined as a pathological syndrome in which the level of oxygen in the arterial blood is lowered and the amount of carbon dioxide, on the contrary, is increased.
Such a painful condition can develop due to a malfunction of the systems and organs that ensure normal breathing, such as the central and peripheral nervous system, respiratory tract and respiratory muscles, alveoli or chest. There are also many different somatic diseases that become frequent risk factors for respiratory failure.
The classification system addresses hypoxic and hypercaptic respiratory failure. Respiratory failure of the hypoxic type, as a rule, develops as a result of disturbances in the ventilation-perfusion relationship and shunting of blood passing through the lungs.
The most common causes of hypoxic respiratory failure are:
Inflammation, embolism, fibrosis, pulmonary edema
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary alveolitis
Hypercapnic respiratory failure (ventilation) is caused by an increased content of carbon dioxide in the blood. It develops due to the inability of the body for any reason to ensure normal ventilation of the lungs.
Risk factors for the occurrence of this type of pathological syndrome are:
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Severe bronchial asthma
Various neuralgic disorders
Congenital muscular dystrophies and myopathies
· Metabolic and inflammatory myopathies
Primary pulmonary hypertension
· Some diseases of the connective and bone tissues
Giveventilation syndrome arising from obesity
According to the rate of development, respiratory failure can be acute (develops within a few minutes, days) and chronic (develops over several months, years).
Symptoms Treatment methods
Symptoms of respiratory failure are:
– heavy or rapid breathing;
– shortness of breath;
– memory impairment;
– loss of consciousness;
– cyanosis (cyanosis of the skin), etc.
The treatment of this pathological syndrome is complex and is aimed both at eliminating the symptoms of respiratory failure, and at eliminating the causes that led to it. Patients with acute respiratory failure are primarily shown oxygen therapy and non-invasive assisted ventilation. In the absence of the desired effect and the deterioration of the patient’s condition, artificial ventilation is performed until the patient’s breathing is normal. At the same time, treatment of the disease that caused respiratory failure is being carried out.
Treatment of chronic respiratory failure involves the elimination of the underlying disease, oxygen therapy, the use of non-invasive ventilation, the use of various methods of bronchopulmonary drainage, and programmatic pulmonary rehabilitation.