Asthmatics in the cold may experience an attack due to a sharp contraction of the muscles of the bronchi. Cold asthma often occurs when the temperature changes rapidly, the body defends itself in this way.

To reduce the effect of cold on the bronchi, use an inhaler a few minutes before leaving the room.

Cold and bronchial asthma

Exacerbations of asthma during the cold season occur when temperature changes with a range of 10 degrees occur at high humidity. This circumstance leads to hospitalization of 30% of patients. 

Airway cramps can be triggered by normal cold air. If there is a sharp change in temperature when leaving the building in frost, there is numbness of the tongue, a feeling of squeezing in the neck. After some time, bronchospasm develops. This is a protective reaction of the respiratory tract to sudden changes in temperature.

Development mechanism

The main factors that worsen the well-being of asthmatics in winter is the climate in the living room, which is less ventilated than in summer. A lot of dust mites accumulate, a sharp change in air temperature when going outside exacerbates the condition. The effect of cold on bronchial asthma in some patients can be critical.

Analysis of data from research in the field of allergology reveals the relationship between the effects of allergens and the seasons. In winter, the impact of household pathogens increases. The number of patients whose condition worsens increases from 70% to 95%. The immune system is badly affected by a sudden change in weather conditions.  

Numerous factors affect the frequency of exacerbations and the course of bronchial asthma. Cold air is one of the factors that provoke a negative airway reaction in asthmatics. Approximately 50% of patients with bronchial asthma have respiratory distress during a cold test.

Such conditions significantly aggravate the development of the disease, worsen the quality of life in winter. Heat loss in the body in winter is 2 times greater than in summer. When inhaled, the air is heated and humidified, and the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract are cooled. Cooling the mucous membranes leads to bronchospasm.

The body does not defend itself well against allergens during the development of bronchial asthma. Spasm of the bronchi is a protective reaction of the body to the effects of environmental conditions. 

Bronchial hyperreactivity occurs under the influence of several factors:

  • inflammation of the bronchi.
  • changes in the tissues of the walls of the bronchial tree.
  • disorders of neuroregulation of the bronchi;
  • changes in the functions of the muscle tissue of the bronchi. 


In winter, bronchial asthma worsens, the manifestations worsen, the need to use drugs increases, and the number of visits to doctors due to attacks of suffocation increases.

Let’s list the first symptoms of cold asthma:

  • there is a feeling of squeezing in the throat, heaviness in the chest;
  • the state of health worsens;
  • stuffy nose;
  • there is a cough, wheezing, wheezing;
  • shortness of breath is observed.

The signs of the onset of an attack may differ from patient to patient.


Cold asthma has many unpleasant consequences. In winter, patients often have seizures caused by exposure to frosty air, colds, and other factors. Patients need to ensure tighter control of asthma, as this is a complex pathology. It is necessary to monitor the temperature in buildings, the level of humidity and the composition of the inhaled air.

During the winter period the living space is usually ventilated less often, but in such a situation a lot of dust, smoke, chemicals, etc. accumulate in the air. Therefore, doctors advise to ventilate the house so that the air is fresh. It is undesirable for asthmatics to stay indoors for too long at this time. Avoid exposure to cold air currents. Due to a sharp drop in temperature, spasms occur, the airways narrow.

Anticholinergic inhalers are commonly used to combat symptoms of respiratory distress. Anticholinergics are recommended for bronchial asthma, as they act for a long time. But they are not suitable for relieving an attack because they are not fast acting. Therefore, beta2-agonists are used simultaneously with them. This combination allows you to quickly expand the bronchi, it works for a long time.

To prevent cramping, patients are advised to use an inhaler containing bronchodilators 20 minutes before going outside . Spasms can occur due to ARVI and colds. In such a situation, it is undesirable to self-medicate at home, experiment with drugs.

Acetylsalicylic acid to reduce fever can provoke attacks in asthmatics. Therefore, the choice of medicines must be entrusted to an allergist, who will individually prescribe a course of treatment.


Patients with bronchial asthma are advised to use protective masks so that cold air does not enter the respiratory system. Inhalers help make walking more comfortable. They prevent the development of bronchospasm when exposed to cold. 

We list the types of protective masks:

  • balaclava;
  • half mask;
  • transforming scarf;
  • buff .

Cramps can be provoked not only by inhalation of cold air. Under the influence of low temperature, the lumen of the airways decreases, since this is a natural reaction of the body. 

Preventing cold asthma requires the use of filter respirators rather than regular warming masks. Only in this situation will a person be protected from the penetration of toxins, dust, and other irritants into the respiratory tract. It is undesirable to drink a lot of cold water in winter.