Inflammation of the lungs is a disease that can occur due to infection. The treatment regimen for each patient is selected individually. Antibiotics for pneumonia are prescribed if the disease is of bacterial origin. If the pathogens are viruses and fungi, antibacterial drugs will not bring the desired effect. Due to the toxic effects of these medicines, negative consequences may develop.
Pneumonia occurs more often in children than in adult patients. Pneumonia is a disease that is often fatal. At risk are babies less than 5 years old. Difficulties with the selection of an effective therapeutic regimen are due to the similarity of the clinical manifestations that occur with pneumonia, with the signs of other colds. In the list of factors provoking complications, the lack of timely therapy is in the lead.
Treatment is prescribed only after a diagnostic examination. It should take place in a hospital. Without knowing the exact cause of the ailment, it is rather difficult to choose a drug regimen. According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10), bacterial pneumonia is assigned the J15 code. The therapy is carried out in accordance with certain standards. Inflammation of the lungs is accompanied by toxicosis, water and electrolyte disturbances and respiratory failure. In juvenile patients, pneumonia is most often acute. This is due to a sharp decrease in immunity.
Antibiotics are prescribed based on the type of pathogen that caused the pneumonia. In children under 6 years of age, the onset of pneumonia is most often due to the penetration of Haemophilus influenzae. School-aged patients suffer from the negative effects of chlamydia and mycoplasma. Another microorganism that can provoke an inflammatory process in the respiratory tract is pneumococcus. They can be found in the nasopharynx.
A significant reason for the appointment of antibacterial drugs is the appearance of the following symptoms:
- hyperthermia (more than 38 degrees Celsius);
- daytime sleepiness;
- runny nose;
- constant fatigue;
- unproductive cough;
- excessive sweating;
- increased breathing;
- painful sensations in the chest area;
- heavy shallow breathing;
- loss of appetite;
- cyanosis of the skin.
If a child develops the above symptoms, parents should immediately contact a pediatrician. Self-medication is strictly prohibited. Patients are subject to compulsory hospitalization:
- Who are less than three years old.
- Who have developed complications (pleurisy, respiratory failure).
- Suffering from disorders in the work of the cardiovascular system.
- In the history of which there are congenital defects and pathologies of a chronic nature.
- Living in dysfunctional families.
- Particular attention is paid to premature babies suffering from pneumonia.
It is impossible to determine the affected area at home. The diagnostic examination scheme includes X-ray of the respiratory organs, clinical examination of sputum and blood. Based on the modern classification, pneumonia can be:
- typical and atypical;
- community-acquired, hospital;
- aspiration, bacterial, viral, fungal.
Antibiotics are specific drugs that can cause side effects. They cannot be accepted if there are restrictions. The list contains an allergic reaction to the components of the composition, pathological changes in the functional tissue of the kidneys and liver, age. Antibacterial drugs prescribed for children have their own characteristics.
When choosing a medication for the treatment of pneumonia, the general well-being of the baby, the state of his immune system and the information specified in the medical history are taken into account. Penicillins, quinolones , sulfonamides and cephalosporins have a positive effect on patients affected by infection. Viral pneumonia can also be classified as a contraindication.
If the type of pathogen is unknown, the patient is prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics (Amoxicillin tablets, powder for suspension). After bacterial culture, they are replaced with more specific drugs. People who suffer from kidney and liver disease often cannot absorb certain medications.
In the complex regimen prescribed to a child during pneumonia, antibiotics are included along with other drugs. Therefore, when selecting medicines, the results obtained in the course of their interaction must be taken into account. Antibacterial drugs stop the vital activity of pathogens. Medicines from this pharmacological group have a high toxic potential. This suggests that antibiotics can harm a baby who is undergoing treatment for pneumonia.
The list of the most effective antibacterial medicines includes:
- Penicillins of semi-synthetic origin – Mezlocillin , Flemoxin are prescribed if the upper segments of the lung are affected by gram-negative and pneumococcal microflora. A compromise between efficacy and safety is achieved when using antibiotic drugs that include clavulanic acid.
- Modern cephalosporins – Ceftriaxone , Cefazolin and Cefixime are prescribed in the early stages of pneumonia.
- Macrolides are used in combination therapy. Among the popular funds are Azithromycin, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin and Sumamed .
- Aminoglycosides – will only be beneficial if pneumococcus is sensitive to the effects of gentamicin sulfate.
- Metronidazole and its derivatives – Metrogyl can help with severe pneumonia.
- Fluoroquinolones – antibiotics from this category are given to children over 12 years of age to eliminate complications provoked by pathologies of the respiratory system.
Conservative therapy is usually started with beta-lactams and macrolides. Augmentin is often introduced into the general scheme . This drug has a good effect on the inflammatory process localized in the lungs.
With pneumonia, antibiotics are used in parallel with traditional methods and physiotherapy procedures. The latter include breathing exercises and physiotherapy exercises. The standard regimen includes symptomatic drugs, antibacterial agents, and electrophoresis. Among the prerequisites are plenty of drink and strict bed rest.
In the initial stages of pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed, which are sold in the form of a suspension and tablets. In severe pneumonia dosage formulations kolyat intravenously or intramuscularly. The order of admission, a single dosage and the duration of the course are determined based on age, weight and severity of the disease. Only the attending physician can change the therapeutic regimen.
The standard duration of antibiotic therapy is 10-14 days. The timing is increased in the event of adverse reactions and complications. When treating, they are guided by the doctor’s recommendations and the instructions for use attached to the specific medication. With advanced pneumonia, therapy is continued until pathological changes in functional tissue disappear. The need to replace the antibiotic arises if new foci of infiltration have been found.
To achieve a combined effect, antibiotics for pneumonia in children are taken together with secretory, antitussive, resorptive and proteolytic drugs.
The child is not recommended to give antipyretic medications without a doctor’s prescription. They can blur the clinical picture. When choosing antibiotics of the latest generation, resistance to drugs released earlier is developed.
Through a balanced diet, they compensate for the lack of vitamins, minerals, micro- and macroelements. With the help of hardening, they strengthen the immune system, increase the functionality of the respiratory system. Methods of specific prevention include vaccination against whooping cough, pneumococcal infection and measles.
Thanks to the combined complex, the child’s body becomes more protected. The child must practice good personal hygiene. In the room where he lives, you need to regularly wet cleaning and airing.