Croupous pneumonia is a bilateral pneumonia, which entails secondary changes in vital organs and severe intoxication of the body. In the absence of timely treatment, there is no chance of recovery. The disease provokes the appearance of cerebral hypoxia, acute respiratory failure, cardiovascular pathologies. Progression of these diseases fraught fatal.
Infectious infection occurs against the background of reduced immunity. Pneumonia is developing rapidly. Lesions appear simultaneously on both parenchymal organs. Sputum accumulates in the alveoli, the tissue surrounding the bronchi swells strongly. The appearance of GNT (immediate type hypersensitivity) is due to the similarity of proteins with the antigens of the pathogen.
The pathogens that cause pneumonia destroy the affected lung. The disease develops over several stages, among them: red hepatization , hepatization , resolution. The severity of pneumonia is determined based on the data of the diagnostic examination. Complications of inflammation most often appear in underage patients.
Acute croupous pneumonia, provoked by Frindler’s bacillus , becomes chronic. To prevent relapse, the course of treatment is repeated with the development of hyperthermia. Bilateral pneumonia is an ailment of infectious and allergic origin. At risk are adults aged 18 to 40 years. The duration of the incubation period depends on the etiology of the disease, the type of pneumonia and the individual characteristics of the patient.
Forms of the disease
The disease is classified, given the nature of the clinical manifestations. Croupous pneumonia happens:
- central – the foci of inflammation are localized in the depths of the parenchymal organ;
- lobar (lobar) – violations occur in one or more lobes of the lung;
- meningeal – partial dysfunction of the respiratory system is accompanied by the development of severe cerebral symptoms;
- abortive – rapid onset and short pathogenesis (2-3 days);
- typhoid – the signs of this type of pneumonia are similar to the clinical manifestations of typhoid fever;
- massive – the inflammatory process goes to the upper and lower segments of the lung within a short period of time;
- appendicular – similar to the symptoms that occur with acute appendicitis;
- reactive – children whose immunity is weakened suffer from pneumonia of this type;
- migratory – develops over a long period.
Symptoms included in the clinical picture depend on the stage of the disease. Additional complications isolated acute respiratory failure, disseminated coagulation syndrome, respiratory and heart failure.
Signs of lobar pneumonia
All symptoms of the disease are divided into two groups: bronchopulmonary and intoxication. The following signs are ranked as the main ones:
- painful sensations in the sternum;
- separation of sputum containing blood streaks;
- dyspnea and tachypnea.
The cause of the cough syndrome in pneumonia is irritation of the vagus and laryngeal nerves. They are located in the pleura, larynx, pharynx.
At the initial stage, mucus accumulates in the small bronchi, so there may be no coughing. After sputum enters the upper segments of the affected organ, the intensity of the characteristic signs increases. It is quite difficult to identify an ailment in adults and children at an early stage.
The cough is dry and moist. The accumulated mucus is removed at the end of the first week after the first symptoms of pneumonia appear. Catarrhal phenomena are accompanied by the development of intoxication syndrome. With tachycardia, an increase in heart rate occurs. The list of clinical symptoms of croupous inflammation includes chills, excessive sweating, fever, dyspepsia, loss of orientation in space, and sleep problems .
Features of manifestations in children
With bilateral pneumonia, the child develops symptoms that are different from those that develop in adults. The following features are distinguished:
- In the clinical picture of pneumonia, there are no temperature changes and pain in the side.
- The characteristic features listed above are complemented by muscle stiffness and seizure syndrome.
- With croupous inflammation in minors, the auxiliary muscles of the pectoral girdle are involved in the breathing process.
- Due to oxygen starvation, cyanosis appears in the face and limbs.
Babies often suffer from atypical forms of lobar pneumonia.
Reasons for development
Pneumonia develops due to the negative effects of the following factors:
- infection of the body;
- sensitization due to allergies;
- unsatisfactory living conditions;
- harmful production;
- emotional stress;
- lack or excess of vitamins;
- overheating, hypothermia;
- autoimmune pathologies;
- disturbances in the work of the central nervous system;
- chronic overwork;
- epidemiological outbreaks;
- mechanical injury;
- asocial lifestyle;
- surgical intervention.
Pneumonia can be triggered by Frindler’s bacillus , pneumococci, staphylococci and streptococci. The list of pathogens includes Escherichia and Klebsiella. The infection is transmitted in several ways, among them: airborne, lymphogenous , hematogenous.
With pneumonia, the diagnosis is carried out in a hospital. In most cases , measures taken at home will not be enough. The signs that appear with pleuropneumonia are specific. Therefore, the examination does not take much time. To identify an accurate diagnosis , the following methods are used:
- lung biopsy;
- laboratory research;
Using the latter method, the affected area, interstitial changes, and the nature of the darkening are determined. With pneumonia, the vascular pattern increases, the density of functional tissue increases, the roots of the bronchial tree expand. The clinical examination scheme includes OAK, OAM, biochemical blood test, sputum microscopy, bacterial culture , serological tests.
Treatment of lobar pneumonia
A patient suffering from pneumonia is sent to the pulmonary department. At the last stage of pneumonia, there is a need for resuscitation. Through therapeutic measures, the following occurs:
- correction of metabolism and gas exchange;
- neutralization of pathogenic microflora;
- stabilization of the respiratory system.
During therapy, the level of gases in the blood is monitored. When it changes, inhalation is carried out.
Antibacterial therapy, physiotherapy procedures, folk methods are introduced into the medical complex . To normalize gas exchange, oxygen therapy and breathing exercises are used. With the help of warming up, the excretion of sputum accumulated in the bronchi is accelerated. Also observe the following recommendations:
- strict bed rest;
- sparing diet;
- corrected drinking regime.
The diet includes fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, steamed dishes. The patient will have to forget about marinades, fried and fatty foods. Strong drinks are replaced with weak tea, mineral water, berry fruit drinks and freshly squeezed juices.
To eliminate croupous pneumonia, a combined drug regimen is used, which includes antibiotics, mucolytics and antihistamines . Also used drugs that have antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and expectorant properties. Medicines are selected by the attending physician. To achieve a positive effect in the treatment of pneumonia, you must follow the recommendations of a specialist and the manufacturer’s instructions. The latter are listed in the annotation attached to the medicinal product.
Antibiotics and drugs containing sulfonamides increase the risk of intoxication in the body. To prevent the development of negative consequences in pneumonia, alkaline solutions are introduced into the drug regimen. If the patient is at risk, he is prescribed cephalosporins. They are highly efficient and safe. For severe pneumonia, fluoroquinolones are used . The resulting complications are treated in parallel with the main ailment.
The list of medicinal herbs that can help with pneumonia includes:
- blooming Sally;
- sowing rank;
- goat willow.
The healing mixture can be made with hazelnuts, honey, and sweet wine. 50 g of kernels are boiled in wine, a beekeeping product is added to the finished composition. The medicine is taken before meals.
A powerful effect on pneumonia is given by a curd compress. This recipe is strictly forbidden to be used in conjunction with antibiotics. To carry out the procedure, you need to follow a specific algorithm. First, the curd is heated. Put a tablespoon of honey in the resulting mixture. The composition is placed on wax paper. The patient should take a horizontal position. The cake is placed on the chest. To prevent burns, a cotton napkin is placed between the skin and the medicinal composition.
The prognosis depends on the stage at which treatment for pneumonia was started. Death occurs in 5% of cases. The elderly and young children are at risk. The disease spreads quickly, so clinical manifestations should not be ignored .
Measures taken in a timely manner help to strengthen the respiratory system and the body as a whole. To prevent the development of pneumonia, you must:
- observe the daily routine;
- forget about harmful addictions;
- exercise regularly;
- Healthy food.
Of great importance in the prevention of pneumonia is the quality of food and water taken, cleanliness at home and at work. Ignoring hygiene standards can lead to a weakened immune system.
Bilateral pneumonia gives impetus to the development of pulmonary and extrapulmonary consequences. Among potential complications are the following diseases:
- toxic shock;
- acute respiratory failure;
- gangrene of the lung;
- pleural effusion;
Pneumonia is a serious disease that has no age limit. Complex treatment should be under the supervision of a doctor. If complications arise with right-sided or left-sided pneumonia, the person will need urgent medical attention.