Pneumonia is an acute illness of the respiratory system. He has no age restrictions, both an adult and a child can suffer from pneumonia. At risk are patients with weakened immunity, premature babies and babies less than a year old. Launched bilateral pneumonia in children can lead to serious complications and death. To avoid adverse consequences, the patient is prescribed an effective therapeutic regimen.
The number of babies with pneumonia increases greatly in the autumn-winter period. This is due to the anatomical features of juvenile patients. The airways are narrow and short. The muscles of the chest are not fully developed, the same can be said about the functional tissue of the lungs. Because of this, gas exchange in the child’s body worsens.
Another provoking factor is an unformed immune system. There are several types of bilateral pneumonia, among them are ambulatory, immunological, nosocomial and ventilation.
Also, pneumonia is classified based on the clinical and radiological form. In this case, the disease is focal, interstitial, segmental and croupous. During the diagnostic examination, the etiology of pneumonia must be taken into account. Pathogenesis directly depends on age.
In a child under 5 years of age, symptoms come on suddenly. Children who are 7-8 years old develop much more slowly. The earlier treatment for pneumonia begins, the lower the risk of negative consequences. These include oxygen starvation, disruptions in the process of gas exchange and severe intoxication of the body.
Bilateral pneumonia is transmitted in several ways, including airborne and hematogenous (through the bloodstream). The accelerated progression of pathology in a child occurs against the background of a weakened immunity. The clinical manifestations characteristic of pneumonia include:
- increased body temperature;
- nausea, vomiting;
- respiratory failure;
- hard breathing;
- cyanosis of the skin;
- debilitating cough;
- joint pain;
- runny nose;
- loss of appetite;
- excessive sweating;
- rapid breathing;
- daytime sleepiness;
- muscle weakness;
- bowel disorder;
- general malaise;
- wheezing in the lungs.
Babies who have the above symptoms are urgently hospitalized. In especially severe cases, there is a need for resuscitation. Bilateral pneumonia is a serious risk for children under one year old. In school-age patients , pneumonia proceeds in waves. Usually it is preceded by acute bronchitis, pharyngitis, acute respiratory infections, tonsillitis or otitis media. Ignoring the symptoms of a bilateral ailment is fraught with the occurrence of an abscess, infectious-toxic shock, purulent pleurisy, sepsis, pericarditis, meningitis and pleural empyema. The condition of the child must be carefully monitored. The appearance of new symptoms in a child indicates the progression of a disease of the respiratory system.
Reasons for development
The factors causing bilateral pneumonia differ in children of different ages. Newborns and babies can become infected with respiratory pathology due to:
- premature birth;
- congenital anomalies;
- lack of weight;
- constant regurgitation;
- birth trauma;
- intrauterine hypoxia.
In the history of a schoolchild, pneumonia appears as a result of exposure to the following factors:
- colds (tonsillitis, sinusitis);
- harmful addictions;
- the influence of allergens and harmful impurities;
- emotional stress;
- unbalanced diet;
- lack of vitamins, minerals, micro- and macroelements.
This list is supplemented by cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune pathologies, chronic lack of sleep, and allergic reactions. Herpes simplex, rubella, chickenpox and flu are becoming a significant cause for concern. The disease affects the lungs unevenly. The causative agent of pneumonia in childhood is most often pneumococcus. In the list of microorganisms that provoke the disease, there are legionella, chlamydia, pneumocystis. Treatment of a child for pneumonia should take place in a stationary environment.
To determine the exact diagnosis, the doctor directs the patient to a plain X-ray. This method is recognized as the main one. Thanks to the information that was obtained after it was carried out, the doctor assesses the general condition of the child. A mandatory stage of the diagnostic examination is laboratory research. The scheme includes a general analysis of mucus accumulated in the bronchi, OAC and OAM.
They also use specific diagnostic methods (PCR, ELISA, RIF). During the initial stages of the diagnostic examination, the doctor takes a history and conducts a physical examination. The data obtained during auscultation and percussion are of great importance. If necessary, the patient is referred for consultation to specialists.
Comprehensive therapeutic range for thoracic baby picks up a doctor. Self-medication for pneumonia is strictly prohibited. Depending on the general condition, the child is prescribed bed, semi-bed or free rest. An obligatory step is to adjust the diet and drinking regime. In this case, the doctor takes into account the energy costs of the child’s body and the age of the child.
The following drugs are included in the drug regimen for pneumonia:
When prescribing antibiotics, they are guided by the stage of the disease and the individual characteristics of the baby. The positive effect of taking (administering) antibacterial drugs occurs 1-2 days after the start of therapy. Pneumonia in a child is treated with penicillins, macrolides, and cephalosporins. In severe cases, imipenems and aminoglycosides are used. Fungal pneumonia is treated with Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. Drug therapy for pneumonia is combined with physiotherapy and exercise therapy.
Throughout the entire therapeutic course, the patient should regularly undergo control studies. Thus, the doctor evaluates the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment. If the pathogen has not been identified, the child is prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Preparations from this category are sold in the form of an injection solution and tablets. Antibacterial agents for pneumonia are recommended to be taken in parallel with probiotics. They are necessary to stabilize bowel function. Traditional methods are used only after agreement with the attending physician.
The course of treatment for bilateral pneumonia in a child is 14–28 days. If the therapy has not brought the desired effect, the doctor revises the drug regimen. A patient who has suffered such pneumonia is registered with a pulmonologist for a year.
To prevent the development of pneumonia, you must:
- strengthen the baby’s immune system;
- protect the child from contact with infected people;
- timely treat all colds;
- balance the diet;
- often walk in the fresh air;
- do all vaccinations on time;
- regularly wet cleaning.
Bilateral pneumonia can be primary and secondary. With any of these varieties, damage to the lung tissue and alveoli occurs. The impact of the external environment on the body and the quality of baby care are of great importance . A child suffering from pneumonia is in most cases not contagious to others.