Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system in which the patient has bouts of acute respiratory failure. During an exacerbation, bronchioles become too sensitive to asthmatic pathogens. The mucous membranes lining the airways become severely inflamed. Due to oxygen starvation, a spasm develops. An asthma attack can occur at any age. At risk are minor patients who are less than 10 years old.
In the absence of supportive therapy , the patient develops serious complications. Asthma is often called pneumonic plague. The child can be cured of this ailment. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for adult patients. In this case, the prognosis for asthma depends on how the primary therapy is going . It is prescribed based on the data of the diagnostic examination.
Bronchial asthma is an illness provoked by an allergic reaction. The general condition of the patient is aggravated by the following factors:
- asocial lifestyle;
- infectious infection;
- excessive physical activity;
- severe stress;
- climate change;
- exposure to cold air.
Allergies can be caused by household dust, chemicals, pollen, car emissions and mold. This list is supplemented with pet hair and down, food allergens. To determine the exact cause of the ailment, the patient is prescribed special tests.
Asthma provokes the appearance of such clinical symptoms as:
- accumulation of sputum in the bronchi;
- swelling of the mucous membranes;
- rapid breathing and heartbeat;
- dry cough;
- cramps in the airways;
- wheezing in the lungs.
Bronchial asthma is often accompanied by dermatological pathologies.
How to recognize a seizure
The onset of an asthma attack is indicated by the sudden appearance of the above symptoms. Patients often complain of chest discomfort and shortness of breath. The list of symptoms includes puffiness of the face, cyanosis of the skin, excessive sweating and chills. To relieve his condition, the patient bends over. He instinctively rests his hands on a hard surface.
With the transition of asthma to the acute phase, the patient develops warning symptoms. These include catarrhal symptoms, rapid fatigue, mood swings, and sleep problems. They appear 2-3 days before the height. The risk of developing an attack increases during the night.
First aid for an attack
When asthma worsens, you should not panic. To stop the process, use an inhaler. This is the name of a special device that contains an anti-asthma medicine. It is used when the manifest early symptoms of malaise. To relieve an attack, you must:
- Provide fresh air.
- Sit the patient on a chair. The head should be tilted, this will facilitate the release of phlegm that has accumulated in the bronchi.
- Remove jewelry from the neck, the same goes for the tie.
- Use an inhaler. It should be applied every 20-25 minutes.
- Regain control of breathing.
- Give the patient warm water.
After using medicines, there is a noticeable relief. Asphyxiation passes, the sputum accumulated in the bronchi is separated .
for asthmatics during an exacerbation, differs from the treatment regimen used during remission. If emergency care is provided in a timely manner, the likelihood of negative consequences is minimal. If you have an asthma attack, you should immediately contact your doctor. It is quite difficult to get rid of the ailment without medication.
Algorithm of assistance
The procedure for an attack depends on the factor that provoked it and the general condition of the patient. At the first stage, inhalers are used. Anti-asthma medicines are also used, which are produced in the form of an injection solution and tablets. The scheme of treatment often include oxygen therapy and inhalation. The latter are done by means of a nebulizer . In especially severe cases, devices are connected to facilitate breathing.
Diagnostics is necessary in order to determine the stage and severity of the disease. The following stages are distinguished: the appearance of precursor symptoms, the height, the reverse development. Asthma during an exacerbation is treated with basic therapy, which is selected on an individual basis. During its passage, biomaterials are regularly taken from the patient for control clinical studies.
Anti-asthma drugs must be used in full accordance with the recommendations of narrow-profile specialists (pulmonologist and allergist). Violation of the regimen prescribed for asthma is fraught with the following side effects:
- increased heart rate;
- loss of orientation in space;
- Strong headache;
- sleep problems;
- hyperemia of the skin;
- tremor of the limbs.
Is it possible to relieve an attack without medication
In the absence of an inhaler, time-tested methods are used . Among them are:
- Foot baths. The water temperature must be high. Through this procedure, blood circulation is restored, and the lungs normalize.
- Respiratory gymnastics. By doing simple exercises, the patient regains control of breathing.
- Reception of power engineers. Drinks in this category contain caffeine. With its help, relieve airway spasm and eliminate dyspnea (shortness of breath). This method is unsafe, therefore it is allowed to use it only in the absence of other options.
The greatest effect can be achieved through preventive measures. Ignoring the clinic, indicating the onset of an asthma attack, can lead to bronchial damage .
Additional home measures
To stop an asthma attack at home , iodine and baking soda are used. Add 2 teaspoons of sodium bicarbonate and a few drops of iodine to one glass of warm water. The patient only needs to take a couple of sips. It is strictly forbidden to exceed the prescribed dosage.
Among the methods of alternative medicine, cupping massage is distinguished. The patient will not be able to carry out this procedure on his own, he will need an assistant. The patient is in a sitting position during the procedure. For massage you need to prepare:
- cotton swab;
- medical bank;
The patient’s back is smeared with petroleum jelly before the procedure. The can is gently moved over the affected area. Massage for exacerbation of asthma lasts for 4-5 minutes. Mustard plasters are often used to facilitate breathing.
Warming up in asthma is carried out only in the absence of hyperthermia. When carrying out therapy at home, you need to be guided by the doctor’s recommendations. Be especially careful when the following factors are present:
- hypersensitivity to the components of the composition;
- pathologies of a bacterial and viral nature;
- diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system.
Prevention of asthma attacks
To prevent malaise, the patient should avoid contact with substances that provoke an allergic reaction. The list of effective preventive measures also includes:
- adjustment of the drinking regime and diet;
- regular intake of prescribed medications;
- medical gymnastics;
- rejection of harmful addictions.
Asthma is an ailment that can cause serious complications. Despite this, the likelihood of death is rather small. A patient who observes medical recommendations lives in a habitual rhythm. The drug treatment regimen includes drugs that have antihistamines, bronchodilators and expectorant effects.
By means of timely prevention, the risk of an acute phase is reduced . The first first aid for an attack of bronchial asthma should be provided by a person who knows the correct algorithm.