Since bronchial asthma is an intractable disease, the goal of therapy is to maintain a stable condition of the patient. An effective way to level the symptoms is drug inhalation for asthma.
Symptoms such as choking, swelling of the mucous membranes, increased cough and lack of air when breathing are indications for the use of inhalation. The most effective in this case are inhalations for bronchial asthma through a nebulizer , since this type of apparatus has more advantages compared to classical inhalers.
Despite the effectiveness of the method, there are also limitations for the use of inhalations for bronchial asthma:
- increased body temperature – 37.5 and above;
- bleeding in the lungs;
- recurrent pneumothorax;
- cerebral atherosclerosis;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- respiratory failure (due to diseases other than asthma);
The undoubted advantage of nebulizers is the availability of a wide selection of models according to the following characteristics:
- device principle: compressor, ultrasonic, electronic mesh (mesh);
- variability of sizes: from portable, but large-sized devices used in hospital and at home, or mobile “pocket” nebulizer devices.
Varieties of drugs
The most effective drugs used in inhalation treatments for asthma are:
- glucocorticosteroids ;
- bronchodilators ;
- mucolytics .
The purpose of using glucocorticosteroids during inhalation procedures is their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment with this type of steroid is as follows:
- increased formation of anti-inflammatory proteins in the cells of the body;
- decreased vascular permeability;
- reduction of bronchial edema;
- decrease in the activity of the body’s own cells, directed against the organs and structures of the respiratory system;
- slowing down the sclerotic syndrome.
Since glucocorticosteroids are hormonal agents, they have clear time limitations. The possibility of their use is also determined by the physician, taking into account other characteristics of the asthmatic’s health.
Bronchodilators or otherwise bronchodilator drugs are divided into three groups:
- B- adrenostimulants ( AdS ), as the name suggests, have an adrenaline-like effect on the tissues of the respiratory system. By means of AdS, the bronchi expand, so breathing becomes free. At the same time, the effect on other organs is minimal.
- Anticholinergic bronchodilators achieve a therapeutic effect by blocking cholinergic nerves that compress the airways.
- Xanthine bronchodilators help to relax the muscles of the bronchi, thereby achieving the effect of their expansion.
This category of drugs does not have serious side effects, therefore it is widespread in the fight against the symptoms of bronchial asthma.
For bronchial asthma and other complicated diseases of the upper respiratory tract and respiratory tract, mucolytics are also used . They are used to liquefy viscous and thick phlegm. At the same time, their advantage is the separation of sputum without increasing its volume.
Other drugs for inhalation that are relevant for bronchial asthma include:
- antibiotics and antiseptics if the cause of asthma is an infectious disease;
- antihistamines (with an allergic type of asthma);
- immunomodulatory drugs in case of a reduced level of immunity of the patient on an ongoing basis.
In addition, for the purpose of prevention, as well as for pregnant women with asthmatics, in order to avoid an exacerbation of the disease, inhalations using saline or mineral water may be prescribed .
Inhalation with a nebulizer and their advantages
The main difference between an inhaler and a nebulizer is their ability to transform the drug solution into small particles. The first converts the solution into a drip or vapor form, due to which the drug is deposited in the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. The nebulizer converts the medicine into a fine aerosol consisting of microparticles, which allows them to be delivered to distant parts of the respiratory system.
Compression nebulizers are characterized by loud operation of the mechanism, large dimensions, the ability to work with various drugs. At the same time, ultrasonic versions of devices are, as a rule, more compact and operate silently. But they can be used with certain types of drugs in order to avoid the destruction of the composition and damage to the device itself. Mesh nebulizers combine all the advantages of the previous two types of devices. They are quiet, compact and applicable in combination with most drugs, since they do not destroy their structure. The main disadvantage of this type of device is its high price.
Each nebulizer has other specific features. The selection of a suitable device is carried out not only according to the above criteria, but also taking into account the age and general health of patients. Thus, by visual design, you can choose an option suitable for an adult or a child. In addition, human motor abilities are also taken into account. So, when the camera or the flask is tilted, some devices do not leak the drug, which is well suited for bedridden patients, as well as infants and sleeping children.
The operation algorithm of the devices does not imply the high complexity of their mechanisms, therefore, the service life is usually long.
Also, the advantage of the latest generation of nebulizers is the possibility of economical use of drugs thanks to a special valve system, which is important for asthmatics who have to constantly spend large sums on drugs.
Carrying out procedures
The procedures are carried out under certain rules:
- It is recommended to use the drug in advance of a meal or some time after.
- The duration of the procedures is limited by the volume of solution used. Usually, no more than 5 ml of solution should be poured into the flask, which corresponds to ten minutes of using the device. If the volume of the drug used is limited, in some cases it is allowed to fill the device with it together with saline .
- It is recommended to take a calm, fixed position and not talk during the procedure.
- Inhalation and exhalation should be carried out in a standard manner. There is no need to vigorously breathe drugs.
- After the procedure, rinse the used nozzle or mask with soapy water or disinfect the used parts of the device with alcohol if there is an infectious disease.
- It is not recommended to use the appliance with homemade herbal solutions (such as chamomile) or food additives such as soda. Such solutions can damage the operation of the device. Herbal ingredients can also be used in the form of pharmaceutical preparations. The folk soda recipe is applicable only for home steam inhalation and has not been unequivocally approved by doctors.
The inhalation method of treatment and prevention of bronchial asthma has been known for a long time. The effectiveness of its use for the treatment of respiratory diseases led to the creation of inhalers, and then nebulizers , as devices of the latest generation.