Obstructive bronchitis is a common condition in children and adults. The disease is characterized by an inflammatory process in the bronchi, damage to the mucous membrane, which leads to narrowing or spasm of the bronchi. As a result, sputum discharge and ventilation of the lungs are impaired.
Obstructive bronchitis in children and adults
The acute form is typical for childhood, caused by a viral infection (adenovirus, influenza, rhinovirus, parainfluenza). Predisposing factors: overheating, cooling, secondhand smoke, polluted air, in children – birth trauma, immaturity, prematurity.
The chronic form, as a rule, develops in adults. Predisposing factors: smoking, heredity, unfavorable environmental conditions, occupational hazards.
It is especially difficult in childhood. Symptoms are similar to the onset of SARS.
- Violent cough, dry or with yellowish green expectoration. It gets worse at night.
- Shortness of breath with difficulty exhaling.
- Inflation of the wings of the nose.
- Low-grade fever, chills.
- Redness of the throat.
- Malaise, weakness.
- Runny nose.
- Sweating, pallor.
- Dry wheezing, wheezing.
- Faint cry of a child, anxiety.
- Weakly expressed signs at the beginning intensify as the disease progresses.
Allergic bronchitis in children differs from obstructive bronchitis in that allergic bronchitis disappears as the allergen is eliminated, and obstructive bronchitis requires medical intervention. Acute bronchial obstruction is reversible.
Symptoms in children and adults are generally similar. Manifestations in adults are often invisible at the initial stage. Sweating, shortness of breath, headache, extreme fatigue gradually appear. With a duration of more than 10 days, the disease goes into a chronic stage.
Late stage of chronic bronchitis
The difficulty in breathing is caused by pulmonary hypertension.
- Inability to take a deep breath.
- Cough with expectoration in the morning.
- Purulent sputum when the infection joins.
- Bluish skin tone.
- Breathing improves when standing or sitting.
- Bubbling breathing when lying down.
- Constant headache, dizziness.
- Lack of effect from mucolytics and bronchodilators.
Chronic bronchitis includes periods of remission and exacerbations caused by acute respiratory diseases, hypothermia. Lack of attention to warning signs can lead to the development of complications: bronchial asthma, otitis media, cor pulmonale, pulmonary emphysema, pneumonia. Serious complications: heart failure, heart rhythm disturbances, respiratory failure.
The basis of therapy is the treatment of the underlying disease, restoration of bronchial patency. In children, an electric suction or a rubber spray is used to suck out the mucus accumulated in the respiratory tract. Vibration massage also helps sputum discharge. Warm, abundant drinks, hot foot baths, expectorant mixtures, aerosol inhalations, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic drugs are recommended. Inhaled corticosteroids when indicated.
Antibiotics are used if bacterial flora is attached, when the sputum is purulent. Vitamin therapy helps to strengthen the body’s defenses.
Chronic obstructive bronchitis
Elimination of the factor that caused the development of the disease.
Groups of drugs with a bronchodilating effect: methylxanthines (for example, aminophylline), 2-agonists (fenoterol, salbutamol), m-anticholinergics (spiriva, atrovent).
Mucolytics (bromhexine, ambrobene) contribute to thinning, facilitating the excretion of sputum.
Expectorants (herbal preparations).
An admixture of pus in sputum is an indication for antibiotic therapy.
To strengthen immunity during remission, hardening, vitamin therapy courses, and physical exercises are performed.