Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) is caused by a variety of causes and pathogens. The pathological process is accompanied by edema, destruction of the alveoli with the formation of connective tissue in place of dead lung cells, hyperthermia. There are 4 stages of pneumonia and 3 degrees of disease severity: mild, moderate and severe.
Characteristics of stages and symptoms
It is known from anatomy that the lungs consist of 10 segments, grouped into 3 lobes in the right lung and 2 lobes in the left. The infection affects the internal structure of the lung tissue, the respiratory function with gas exchange is impaired.
According to the classification, the development of the disease is characterized by the stages of pneumonia in adults:
- red hepatization ;
- gray hepacy ;
At this stage of lobar pneumonia, the lung tissue becomes hyperemic, microcirculatory processes and vascular permeability are disturbed. The walls of the alveoli swell quickly, the lungs become less elastic. A small volume of fluid accumulated in the tissues of the lungs (exudate) fills the inner surface of the alveoli, the airiness of which is still preserved.
The patient has hyperthermia with dry cough, during inhalation and coughing the patient is in pain. The patient’s condition is moderate, in rare cases it will be severe. In a severe form, proceeding rapidly, a person has hallucinations, confusion.
The lips with the tip of the nose are cyanotic, the cheeks are red. Asynchrony of chest movements is observed. At the end of the tide stage, the pleural sheets can become inflamed, this stage lasts no more than 1-2 days.
Red hepatization stage
At this stage of the pathology, sweating plasma tightly fills the alveoli, in which airiness is lost, the lungs become compacted, red. The pain syndrome increases, the body temperature is elevated, intoxication is expressed, a characteristic sign of this stage is the patient’s coughing up of “rusty” sputum. The duration of this stage is 1-3 days.
The patient is in a consistently serious condition, he is overcome by panic, phobias with hallucinations, the person is afraid to die. This condition indicates oxygen starvation. On auscultation, you can hear wheezing in the lungs, there is a pronounced obstruction of the bronchi.
Stage of gray hepatization
This stage of the disease lasts 4-8 days, characterized by the breakdown of erythrocytes in the alveoli with hemoglobin, which is transformed into hemosiderin. The lungs become brown, and due to the leukocytes entering the alveoli, they then acquire a gray color. The cough becomes moist, and the phlegm is discharged with pus or mucus. The symptom of pain is dull, shortness of breath with fever is reduced. The patient’s well-being will improve, and intoxication will decrease.
This stage of pneumonia is characterized by a gradual resorption of exudate, the breakdown of leukocytes increases, the number of macrophages is increased. There is a gradual release of the alveoli from exudate with a slow restoration of their airiness. For a certain period, the opposite process occurs: a parietal location of the exudate is observed, but then it will completely disappear. For a long period, swelling of the alveoli with reduced elasticity of the lungs persists. In the sputum there are no purulent and “rusty” impurities, the respiratory function is gradually normalizing.
The patient is recovering at this stage, the process of sputum resorption takes a long time, but painlessly. The phlegm is easy to cough up, the pain syndrome is mild or absent, breathing returns to normal, the temperature drops to normal values. The resolution stage lasts no more than 12 days.
X-ray analysis allows you to determine the stage of the formation of the pathological process in the lungs. When symptoms worsen as the disease progresses, x-rays will show darkened areas of varying length and size. At the final stage of the disease, the darkening will be smaller, the infiltration will disappear. Strengthened pulmonary pattern persists for about 30 days, it is a criterion for residual effects. When the patient has recovered, fibrous, sclerotic areas may be observed on the x-ray.
X-ray of the lungs for pneumonia
In a child, left-sided pneumonia is more difficult to tolerate, since the lung tissues are located asymmetrically, the airways on the left are more narrowed than on the right. Often the immunity of children is weakened, so mucus is poorly excreted, the infection takes root in the lungs.
Prevention of pneumonia
Preventive measures are aimed at strengthening the body that fights infection with the help of defense mechanisms:
- it is necessary to be vaccinated, especially if a person is over 60 and his immunity is weakened;
- it is desirable to isolate the patient from other people or he must wear a gauze bandage;
- treatment of colds should be timely;
- you should eat balanced, natural products contain many vitamins and minerals, without which the effect of treatment will be incomplete;
- it is necessary to temper, perform breathing exercises;
- exclude addictions, alternate work and rest;
- do not forget about personal hygiene, always wash your hands with soap before eating;
- the room in which the person lives must be regularly ventilated, periodically cleaned in it;
- it is advisable to avoid stressful situations due to which the immune system is weakened;
- avoid exposure to low temperatures;
- it is required to treat chronic respiratory pathologies in a timely manner, then community-acquired infection will be prevented.
In sedentary patients, pneumonia occurs due to stagnant processes, microcirculation is impaired, mucus accumulates in the lungs, and respiratory function is impaired. To prevent congestive pulmonary inflammation, preventive measures are taken:
- change the patient’s position from supine to half-sitting several times a day;
- massage, exercise therapy, physiotherapy are carried out;
- vitamin complexes with immunomodulators are used;
- the general well-being of the patient is monitored.
When a woman is pregnant, her physical activity is limited, the use of 90% of drugs is prohibited to her. Therefore, preventive measures for her are limited. You can use different herbal teas, after consulting with the attending gynecologist. Otherwise, there is a high probability that some plant components can cause allergies and adversely affect the fruit.
During pregnancy, it is useful to eat fruits with vegetables rich in vitamins and microelements. Special vitamin complexes will be selected by a doctor. To strengthen the body, it is useful to walk in the fresh air, relax in a sanatorium, but it is not recommended to swim in the sea and take long sunbaths. A gentle massage is useful, it has a tonic effect, strengthens the immune system.
If a person’s health worsens, breathing is difficult, it is better not to self-medicate, it will lead to negative consequences. It is required to consult a doctor, he will prescribe a diagnosis, select the correct standard of treatment, and give recommendations for further rehabilitation of the patient.