Inflammation of the lungs is a serious and life-threatening illness. It has a high mortality rate, especially in infants. The assumption that the pathology develops due to hypothermia is incorrect. The disease provokes the penetration of pathogenic microbes into the body. Therefore, pneumonia can be prevented if the pneumonia vaccine is timely given.
When is vaccination needed
Vaccination against pneumonia is necessary for children, since they have an insufficiently developed immune system. She is not able to withstand pathogenic agents, so even a cold can provoke the development of pneumonia.
Experts do not consider it necessary to vaccinate mature patients. However, there are certain categories of people who need it. Vaccination against pneumonia in adults is done in the following cases:
- immunodeficiency: HIV, blood cancer, alcohol and nicotine addiction, lack of spleen;
- elderly age of the patient over 65 years;
- the presence of chronic diseases: obstructive bronchitis, anemia, diabetes mellitus, kidney and liver pathologies;
- congenital disorders in the development of the neural tube and spinal cord, in which cerebrospinal fluid flows out;
- The vaccination is needed by the military, workers in nursing homes, schools, kindergartens.
The listed categories of citizens can be vaccinated free of charge at their place of residence. Everyone else gets vaccinated for money.
Are there any restrictions
Vaccination against pneumonia has the following contraindications:
- the presence of acute infectious diseases;
- period of exacerbation of chronic pathologies;
- undergoing radiation and chemotherapy;
- an allergic reaction to the constituent components for vaccination.
Also, immunization is not recommended if you have a bad reaction to DTP, ADS vaccinations.
There are three types of pneumonia vaccine. Each of them has its own advantages and has proven effective in combating the disease:
|Name||Benefits||The number of bacteria against which it is active|
|Prevenar||Prevents the development of pneumonia in infants||13 major infectious agents|
|Pneumo-23||Develops immunity against the most common types of bacteria||23 pathogenic microorganisms|
|AKT- Hib||Prevents infection with pneumonia, prevents the development of sepsis, meningitis, some types of arthritis||Haemophilus influenzae|
The drug for vaccination is selected by a medical professional based on the individual characteristics of the patient.
How vaccinations work
The drug, which is called Plevanar , does not contain the causative agent of pneumonia in its constituent components. It contains only polysaccharides of various types of pneumococci – these are high molecular weight carbohydrates that participate in immune reactions. In other words, the vaccine does not provoke the development of the disease in a mild form, but only activates the body’s defenses so that they can resist the infection.
Some people think that they will never get pneumonia after being vaccinated. This opinion is erroneous, the drug only suppresses the activity of pathogens, but they will be present in the body. In some cases, when the immune system is weakened, they can begin their vital activity.
However, the pneumonia vaccine significantly reduces the risk of pneumonia. In addition, if the infection did occur, the pathological condition after vaccination proceeds more easily, the patient is recovering faster.
Preparing for vaccination
In order for the vaccination to be successful and not cause adverse consequences, you need to prepare for it in advance:
- Begin monitoring the patient within two to three weeks. He should be in good health, there should be no signs of any infections.
- During this time, do not visit places of mass gathering of the population, so as not to catch some kind of disease.
- In the presence of chronic pathologies, try to ensure that they are in remission during vaccination.
- If you have a tendency to allergic reactions, start taking antihistamines a week before vaccination. Continue their consumption after vaccination for two to three weeks.
- On the day before vaccination, undergo a medical examination to make sure that there is no infection in the body.
- Do not eat allergenic food a week before immunization. They suppress the immune system.
These measures will help prevent infection with various disease-causing agents. Thanks to this, the immune system will be able to focus on the production of antibodies to the causative agents of pneumonia.
The vaccination is done at the local polyclinic or in private medical institutions. The drugs can be administered on the same day as other vaccines (with the exception of BCG and Mantoux).
Children under two years of age are vaccinated intramuscularly in the anterior lateral region of the thigh. For adult patients, an injection is given in the upper shoulder area. The dosage and the interval between the administration of vaccines depend on the drugs used. In the instructions for them, everything is detailed.
The vaccination schedule differs from country to country. Vaccination is mandatory in Russia. If it is done to a baby up to three months, then up to a year it is necessary to give 3 more injections at an interval of four weeks. When the injection is given at 7-11 months, then two injections of the vaccine are subsequently prescribed. Revaccination is performed in two years.
Adult patients are vaccinated once. However, experts recommend revaccination every five years for best effectiveness.
When vaccinated against pneumonia, side effects may occur:
- Lump, painful syndrome, redness at the injection site. It happens in 5% of patients.
- Hyperthermia up to 39 degrees. It is observed in 1% of those vaccinated.
- Increased drowsiness, tearfulness, irritability, lethargy, impaired appetite.
- Swelling of the limb more than 8 mm.
- Swollen lymph nodes.
- An abscess at the injection site.
- Dyspeptic disorders.
- Exacerbation of chronic pathological conditions.
Vaccination against pneumonia can provoke an allergic reaction. It manifests itself as urticaria, bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock. When the vaccine is given to a premature baby, respiratory arrest may even occur.
The preparatory measures described earlier will help prevent the occurrence of complications. After vaccination, it is undesirable to immediately leave the medical institution. You need to wait half an hour and see if an allergic reaction occurs. After vaccination for several days, you need to limit contact with people with colds.
Some parents have a negative attitude towards vaccination against pneumonia, as drugs can provoke serious consequences. Indeed, the vaccine provokes adverse reactions, but in rare cases, when the rules for preparing for immunization are not followed. If you approach the procedure responsibly, follow all the recommendations and prescriptions of the doctor, undesirable phenomena can be avoided, the post – vaccination period will pass easily. In addition, vaccination against pneumonia is included in the national immunization schedule. It is imperative to be vaccinated.