Segmental pneumonia is characterized by the spread of pathology in a certain segment of the paired organ, which does not go beyond the lung tissue.
According to the localization of inflammation, pneumonia is divided into right- and left-sided. At the same time, the disease can affect not one, but several areas:
- segmental – pathology is located only in one segment of the lung: on the right or on the left;
- polysegmental – several different segments of the organ are affected;
- subsegmental : upper-, middle-, lower-lobe localization of inflammation.
Like any disease, pneumonia is mild, moderate, or severe. At the initial stage, it is treated faster and more efficiently, therefore, it is impossible to be late with the diagnosis.
In addition, inflammation is divided into:
- typical: common bacteria are the cause;
- atypical: rare pathogens are detected;
According to the routes of infection, segmental pneumonia is:
- bronchogenic : the pathogen enters the lungs with the air;
- hematogenous: the infection is carried through the blood;
- metastatic: the disease appears against the background of other inflammations, often malignant.
Based on this classification, the disease can be primary or secondary, that is, it can form independently or become a complication of another ailment.
Segmental pneumonia is caused not only by pathogens, but also by a number of other factors:
- structural changes in the bronchi;
- frequent inflammation in the lower respiratory tract;
- decreased immunity;
Parents should keep a close eye on young children as they may accidentally inhale a small object such as a bead or toy. Foreign body ingestion is also one of the causes of segmental pneumonia.
The bacterial nature of left- or right-sided segmental pneumonia in adults and children is diagnosed in most cases, since pathogens are easily transmitted through the air.
Usually the patient has a hemophilic bacillus, streptococci and staphylococci. Chlamydia, legionella and mycoplasma are characteristic of SARS . Gram-negative bacteria: Klebsiella, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, acinetobacters , are even less common.
These pathogens enter the lungs by airborne droplets. As a rule, pneumonia is caused by the same pathogens that cause most SARS. Often, pneumonia is a complication of viral infections, so it is necessary to treat them in time and take appropriate preventive measures during epidemics.
Fungi also provoke pneumonia and are considered very dangerous. The fact is that the symptoms of fungal pneumonia are very blurred, and it is difficult to distinguish it from other diseases of the respiratory system.
Symptoms of the disease
The incubation period for a typical inflammation lasts about 3 days, but with an atypical lesion, it sometimes lasts up to 3 weeks.
The onset of the disease is always noticeable, since the following symptoms appear in adults and children:
- raising the temperature;
- weakness, decreased performance;
- aching muscles and joints;
- unproductive cough with a whistling sound, transforming into a wet cough over time;
- poor appetite, vomiting, nausea;
- digestive disorders.
If the patient started treatment immediately, after 10 days the manifestations disappear. The lesion of the lobe or segment of the lung still persists for 3 weeks, however, with adequate supportive therapy, the lung tissue quickly recovers.
It is necessary to differentiate the signs of pneumonia from the symptoms of diseases of other respiratory organs. To do this, you should make an appointment with a doctor and undergo the prescribed examinations.
First of all, the patient should consult a therapist, and if the child is sick – a pediatrician. The doctor conducts an examination, draws up a clinical picture and makes initial conclusions about the nature of the disease.
After that, the patient is given a referral for a series of examinations that allow you to accurately determine the disease. The patient needs to donate blood and urine for biochemical analysis, and also give sputum for bacteriological examination.
An obligatory procedure is an X-ray of the lungs, as it allows you to determine the localization and degree of tissue damage. For example, therapy for upper lobe inflammation may differ from that for mid-lobe inflammation , so an accurate diagnosis must be made. In addition to X-rays, CT and MRI of the right and left lungs are done in special cases .
During therapy, the patient may be at home or lying in the hospital. At the same time, he should limit contact with others, since the disease is quite contagious. Depending on the causative agent of pneumonia, appropriate therapy is prescribed. For example, if there is a bacterial infection, the patient needs antibiotics. At the same time, drugs should be selected for each patient individually: pregnant and lactating women, patients with serious pathologies of other organs and young children need more gentle drugs. The same principle applies to the appointment of antitussives, expectorants and mucolytic agents.
Alternative medicine can help cure pneumonia when used in conjunction with medication. Decoctions and infusions are effective against cough syndrome and can reduce inflammation. Warming compresses allow you to treat pneumonia in a segmental way, that is, to affect certain parts of the organ. Before using folk remedies, you should consult your doctor.
When the condition of correct and timely treatment of segmental pneumonia does not lead to death of the patient and does not lead to serious negative consequences. If you start therapy at the first signs of the disease, the patient can recover within a month.
Delay and improper treatment, on the contrary, slow down tissue regeneration and threaten with complications. Even after getting rid of pneumonia, symptoms of respiratory distress may remain.
The basic rules for preventing the disease are quite simple:
Rejection of bad habits
- maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
- rejection of bad habits;
- proper nutrition;
- hardening and physical education or sports.
Getting vaccinated regularly also helps to reduce the risk of contracting and developing pneumonia. When community-acquired treatment should avoid close contact with sick people. If someone from your family is sick , you need to carefully consider the disinfection of common things.
Untreated acute pneumonia leads to chronicity of the disease and the development of complications. In particular, there are frequent cases of pleurisy, lung abscess , prolapse of lung tissue. Inflammation on the left is dangerous because it is closer to the heart and can lead to diseases of the heart muscle. There are more pathogens, which is why their waste products poison the body and damage the nervous system, primarily the brain. Due to oxygen deficiency, formed against the background of a decrease in the volume of inhaled air, hypoxia develops. The cells of various body systems do not receive enough oxygen and begin to die off.
A specialist should deal with the treatment of segmental pneumonia, therefore, at the first manifestations of the disease, it is necessary to go to the hospital. After prescribing the drugs, you need to follow the indicated dosage and not get carried away with self-medication. We must not forget about prevention: it is easier to prevent the disease than to try to get rid of it.