Allergies, asthma to medicines and chemicals

Immunological hypersensitivity is an overreaction of the immune system to a specific substance and is probably the form of immunotoxicity most commonly observed in patients. This reaction essentially means lowering the threshold of clinical sensitivity to an antigenic stimulus. When describing hypersensitivity, terms such as anaphylaxis, atopy and allergy are used. a) Contact sensitivity and skin disorders . Occupational...

Causes of occupational asthma and its types

Occupational asthma has become the most common pulmonary disease in developed countries. About 250 substances can cause occupational asthma. Isocyanates are the cause of the most common form of this disease. The incidence of isocyanate-induced asthma among workers exposed to this substance is close to 10%. The mechanisms of pathological lesions in occupational lung diseases are listed in the table...

Pathomorphological data in bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma under the microscope

Asthmatics undergo deep morphological changes in the bronchi – remodeling (increase in smooth muscle mass and secretion of viscous sputum, thickening of BM, bronchospasm), which largely determines the severity of bronchial asthma. So, in the case of death of a patient from asthmatic status (AS), five characteristic structural changes are found that are unevenly distributed...

Treatment of exacerbations of asthma. Preparations

The intensity of treatment corresponds to the severity of the attack (Fig. 4-9). Mild exacerbations of asthma are treated at home by temporarily increasing the frequency of use of short-acting bronchodilators with or without a course of oral steroids. In this case, a plan of action for asthma helps, and therefore there is no need to involve...

Supportive care for bronchial asthma in children. Medications for treating childhood asthma

Mild or moderate severity of persistent bronchial asthma should be treated with long-acting supportive agents, which include NSAIDs, inhaled glucocorticoids, theophylline depot preparations, long-acting b2-adrenostimulants and leukotriene modulators.    NSAIDs for bronchial asthma in children Cromoline and nedocromil inhibit the manifestations of the early and late phases of an allergic asthmatic reaction and can relieve bronchospasm caused by physical effort. Both...

Endogenous bronchial asthma. Aspirin bronchial asthma

Endogenous bronchial asthma (idiopathic) usually develops in adulthood and includes all other types of the disease (triggers – non-immune and non-obvious). With this form, there is no family history of atopic diseases (there is no rhinitis, conjunctivitis), the level of eosinophils in the blood and sputum is increased, seizures occur under the influence of internal stimuli...

Recurrent asthma. Lymphocytes in atopic asthma

Recently, a third type of asthma has been described after tests with bronchial provocation: after immediate or late reactions, individual patients may experience a relapse of asthma, especially at night, over the next few days without repeated contact with the allergen. This picture was described by Gandevia and Milne (1970), who used cedar wood, and Davies et al. (1974)...

Pathophysiology of bronchial asthma. Pathogenesis of bronchial asthma

Pathophysiology of bronchial asthma: • decreased airway clearance due to smooth muscle spasm, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration of the bronchial mucosa, viscous secretion accumulation; • increased lung airiness (and residual volume); • ventilation and perfusion disorders (due to a prolonged increase in resistance to air flow or a decrease in the resulting pressure), leading...

Clinic of an attack of bronchial asthma. Objective signs of an attack of bronchial asthma

Usually, during a severe attack, the patient is forced to sit in bed (due to severe shortness of breath while lying down). He takes a “coachman’s pose” – with the rest of his hands to include auxiliary muscles in the act of breathing (a sign of BA severity). It is difficult for him to speak...

Bronchial asthma. Asthmatic condition

The diagnosis of an attack of bronchial asthma in typical cases is straightforward. A typical attack of bronchial asthma was described more than 100 years ago by the French clinician Trousseau  : “A patient experiencing shortness of breath for the first time does not realize the true nature of his illness, immediately becomes very anxious, afraid to suffocate, jumps out...