Staphylococcal pneumonia is an acute disease that affects the lung tissue. The causative agent of the pathology is a pyogenic microbe. If you ignore the characteristic symptoms, the likelihood of the appearance of destructive changes increases. The disease can develop both at home and in a hospital setting. Inflammation of the lungs, provoked by staphylococcus, is quite difficult.
The main symptoms
The manifestations of pneumonia caused by a pyogenic microbe are similar to those that occur with unilateral drainage bronchopneumonia. Symptoms directly depend on the strain of the pathogen that caused the infection, the existing chronic diseases and the individual characteristics of the patient. The clinical picture of pneumonia is necessarily present:
- severe intoxication;
- debilitating cough;
- general malaise;
- respiratory failure;
There are several forms of staphylococcal pneumonia, among them:
- Staphylococcal infiltrate – there is a focal pneumosclerosis, severe toxic damage and asthmoid syndrome.
- Pulmonary pleural variety – the appearance of multiple foci in the parenchymal tissue is possible. In this case, pneumonia turns into pleurisy and pyopneumothorax . The symptoms of respiratory failure are often combined with upset gastrointestinal tract, general lethargy.
- Destruction of the lungs of the bullous type – staphylococcal bullae form during the first week. Dyspnea with pneumonia is usually absent, body temperature returns to normal after a short period of time. After the disappearance of the destructive cavities, residual cysts form.
- Metastatic destruction of the respiratory system – it is accompanied by blood poisoning, bilateral lung damage, shock. The appearance of foci of inflammation in the area of the endocardium is possible.
- Absolute pneumonia – the most difficult period is observed before opening the cavity filled with pus. The state of health worsens due to painful sensations in the sternum, respiratory failure and severe weakness. A breakthrough of the abscess is evidenced by the abundant secretion of sputum.
Inflammation of the lungs caused by staphylococcus develops at an accelerated rate. The critical temperature does not drop even when taking powerful antipyretic drugs. The malaise lasts for several days. Also, the patient complains of dizziness, shortness of breath (even at rest). He has cyanosis of the skin (the nasolabial triangle turns blue ). Staphylococcal pneumonia can be primary or secondary. With the latter type of ailment, the affected area extends to both parenchymal organs.
Causes of occurrence
In most cases, staphylococcal pneumonia becomes a complication of such ailments as purulent thrombophlebitis and endocarditis. The situation is often aggravated by the following factors:
- penetration of infection into the nasopharynx area;
- weakening of the immune system;
- aspiration of the respiratory tract;
- non-compliance with sanitary and hygienic standards;
- asocial lifestyle;
- surgical intervention;
- long stay in a medical institution;
- drug therapy;
- chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
Staphylococci activate the production of harmful compounds that provoke the destruction of parenchymal tissue. This process is accompanied by hemorrhagic necrosis (necrosis) of the affected areas, the appearance of large air bubbles and the development of peribronchial abscesses.
Is the disease contagious
Pneumonia can cause serious complications. At risk are:
- newborns and infants;
- alcohol and drug addicts;
- aged people;
- patients suffering from chronic pathologies of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
The age of the patient is of great importance. The causative agent of pneumonia in children under three years old is most often Staphylococcus aureus. It is characterized by a spherical shape. Pathogens can be located one at a time, but most often experts record clusters of representatives of pathogenic microflora, resembling bunches of grapes.
Infection occurs in several ways:
A child who has already recovered may have symptoms of pneumonia again. Relapse occurs if the patient has ignored the preventive measures and recommendations of the attending physician. In the absence of timely therapy, a lethal outcome is possible.
Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted by household, airborne and contact methods. This pathogen can be found in the microflora of the respiratory tract. In this case, the patient will feel completely healthy. Symptoms of pneumonia will appear if the immune system is disturbed.
Staphylococcal pneumonia is determined by diagnostic examination. It consists of three stages. At the first stage, anamnesis and physical examination are taken . Auscultation and percussion are considered mandatory procedures. Thus, changes in percussion sound and weakened breathing are detected.
The second stage is laboratory research. They are appointed, taking into account the information that was obtained at the previous stage. At the last stage, an instrumental examination is carried out. In case of pneumonia, X-ray and computed tomography of the lungs are introduced into the diagnostic scheme. With the help of the image, you can find out the number and location of the affected segments.
Which doctor can help
If symptoms of pneumonia occur, the patient should consult a therapist or pulmonologist. They will determine the exact cause of the ailment and prescribe an effective therapeutic regimen. During the course of the treatment, the patient must regularly undergo clinical tests. The results obtained in the course of control studies are necessary to evaluate the applied measures.
The patient is prescribed a referral for OAM, OAK, sputum microscopy, bacterial culture , serological tests. With pneumonia, an increase in the level of white blood cells and a change in ESR are recorded. By means of bacteriological examination, Staphylococcus aureus is detected. Thanks to the above procedures, information is obtained on the stage of the disease, antibiotic sensitivity , severity, and the number of foci. If necessary, the patient is referred to narrow-profile specialists.
Treatment for staphylococcal pneumonia lasts about a month. Due to the severe course of the disease, the patient is necessarily hospitalized. The drug regimen includes:
- solutions for infusion;
- bronchodilators ;
- antipyretic drugs;
To achieve the maximum effect in the treatment of pneumonia, medication should be combined with physiotherapy procedures. To cleanse the body of toxins and toxins, hemosorption and plasmapheresis are used.
If there is a history of anemia, the patient is prescribed blood transfusion. To normalize the functioning of the respiratory system and compensate for the lack of oxygen, oxygen therapy is used. When treating staphylococcal pneumonia, complications must be taken into account. They are eliminated with the help of exercise therapy, laser or microwave therapy, massage, breathing exercises and reflexology.
The prognosis depends on the stage at which treatment for pneumonia was started. Full recovery occurs in a few months. Clinical symptoms in adults and children persist for a long period of time. Pneumonia provokes serious complications. In the initial stages, the symptoms provoked by them are often confused with residual effects. Ignoring the existing symptoms is fraught with chronic pneumonia and a significant deterioration in well-being.
To prevent the development of pneumonia, you must:
- take immunostimulating drugs;
- dress for the weather;
- Healthy food;
- observe hygiene.
You will also have to forget about harmful addictions.
Staphylococcus pneumoniae can have negative consequences. Among them are:
- septic blood clots;
- pleurisy of the exudative type;
- acute endocarditis;
- blood poisoning;
- hyperemia of the skin;
- hemorrhagic syndrome.
The number of cases of infection with staphylococcal pneumonia increases in the spring and summer. This is due to the widespread prevalence of pathogenic microflora and its multi-resistance to antibacterial drugs used. With such pneumonia, the patient is immediately prescribed a comprehensive therapeutic regimen. Staphylococci can cause many respiratory ailments, including tonsillitis, bronchitis and sinusitis.