World Day of the patient with bronchial asthma
December 11 is traditionally held World Day of the patient with bronchial asthma. Children's Clinic Medsi in Blagoveshchensky Lane organizes a holiday for children suffering from bronchial asthma. Young patients are waiting for gifts, and their parents - nice promotions. In addition, on this day, MEDSI allergologists and immunologists and representatives of leading pharmaceutical companies will talk about modern methods of treating bronchial asthma and hold master classes on the use of metered-dose inhalers.
The head doctor of the Medsi Children's Clinic in Blagoveshchensky Lane, pediatrician, immunologist-allergist Tatiana Semenycheva: "Now amid the possibilities of basic therapy bronchial asthma became almost completely manageable. With the right treatment, the patient rarely develops attacks.
Previously, asthma was treated with non-selective bronchodilator drugs that had a lot of side effects, and they did not profess the principles of basic therapy, that is, they were treated for an attack. As an anti-relapse therapy, they were given periodically or in courses of drugs- xanthines (aminophylline, teopek ), which could also provoke various undesirable effects.
Also, doctors recommended living in the South, mainly in the Crimea. In the 1950s – 60s many patients preferred moving to the southern regions to permanent attacks and constant stay on non-selective therapy."
Treatment of bronchial asthma: from the beginnings to the present day
5th century BC e. - Hippocrates coined the term "asthma", which in Greek means "suffocation." Among the causes of suffocation, he singled out dampness and cold.
16th century - Italian doctor and mathematician Girolamo Cardano described the case of a successful cure for an English clergyman. The treatment included diet, exercise and the replacement of the feather bed with a bed of regular tissue.
18 century - asthma treatment consisted of bloodletting, leeching and spanking flies.
1868 - Atropine, a substance isolated from the roots of the belladonna, is recognized as one of the most effective remedies for asthma. It is able to relax the muscle wall of the bronchi and thereby increase their lumen. Atropine is still used to treat a number of diseases, including asthma.
To deliver the substance into the body, special cigarettes were used, which were used to treat asthma until the middle of the 20th century.
1900 - a chemical substance was found in the human body - adrenaline is the first medicine for emergency assistance in the event of an asthma attack.
Epinephrine was used by injection as well as by inhalation.
1914 - Canadian doctor Sir William Osler in his textbook "Principles and practices of medicine" recommends "strong coffee" to relieve symptoms of asthma. The composition of coffee and tea includes natural xanthines . They expand the bronchi, which ensures the normal circulation of oxygen. The main xanthine used in clinical practice is theophylline. One of the main problems of using xanthines is high risk of side effects such as nausea, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures.
1956 - the creation of the first metering aerosol inhaler.
1950s – 60s - widespread use of non-selective symptomatic agents based on isopropylnoradrenaline (obtained during the synthesis of adrenaline derivatives). Ease of use (inhalation) and rapid relief from an asthmatic attack led to the uncontrolled use of drugs based on this substance. This caused an increased mortality rate of asthmatics from complications of the cardiovascular system.
1969 - Salbutamol, the first bronchodilator drug from the group of selective agonists, appeared. Acts quickly, and therefore used for the relief of attacks. Used for inhalation.
1972 - released the first inhaled glucocorticosteroid, which became the basis of modern anti-inflammatory therapy of asthma.
1991 - developed a long-acting selective bronchodilator drug (salmeterol), which contributed to improved control over bronchial asthma.
1995 - The Global Initiative for Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma - GINA was published, which provided doctors around the world with guidelines for managing patients with bronchial asthma based on the severity of the disease.
Today, asthma therapy consists of three components
For the treatment of bronchial asthma, basic therapy drugs are used, affecting the mechanism of the disease, through which patients control asthma. Depending on the severity of the disease are used:
- inhaled corticosteroids,
- anti - leukotriene preparations.
II Specific Immunotherapy
Ksenia Bolgova, allergist-immunologist Medsi Children's Clinic in Blagoveshchensky Lane: “In patients with bronchial asthma, immune status indicators are changed, there are abnormalities. Asthmatics often get sick, prone to developing secondary infections.
Against the background of an acute respiratory infection, asthma recurs. To reduce the risk of exacerbation, preventive therapy with the use of anti - leukotriene drugs and inhaled corticosteroids is used."
In some cases, to avoid asthma attacks, allergen- specific immunotherapy is used. If the patient suffers from pollinosis, pollen allergy therapy is carried out preseasonally: during November-May in the form of injections or sublingual drops (starting at 5 years of age).
III Auxiliary physiotherapy techniques
During exacerbation of bronchial asthma, various physiotherapeutic methods are used. A good therapeutic effect occurs when applying acupuncture and sessions in salt caves.
Bronchial asthma: symptoms and treatment
What are the symptoms and treatment of bronchial asthma? This question is often asked both by those who have already encountered this disease, and those who only suspect it in themselves. The fact is that at an early stage it is easily confused with many others. Those who have long suffered from this disease are constantly looking for new, more effective methods of treating bronchial asthma. Some of them are discussed in the article.
The disease of bronchial asthma manifests itself in many ways:
- Anyone suffering from asthma can confidently say that the most terrible manifestation of it is asphyxiation attacks, upon the occurrence of which a person cannot inhale with a full breast, begins to choke and gasp for air. At such times, the respiratory system does not fulfill its main function - it does not supply blood necessary oxygen. However, asthma attacks are far from a single symptom of the disease.
- Regular dyspnea and cough. Most often, these symptoms appear in an asthmatic patient after contact with an allergen. In some cases, diseases are observed seasonal deterioration, exacerbated under certain conditions (for example, in the spring, with flowering of certain plant species).
- Dry cough, accompanied by whistling and wheezing in the chest. Most often, coughing attacks attack at night or morning time of day.
- An asthma patient is often accompanied by a feeling of lack of air and pressure in the area of the lungs.
How to treat asthma?
The disease is bronchial asthma is not a complete cure. Thanks to modern medicine, in some cases, doctors manage to achieve a stable remission. The treatment of bronchial asthma is different in duration and must be comprehensive.
Drugs used in the treatment of asthma are divided into basic and symptomatic. With the help of basic drugs can be controlled disease, and symptomatic are used in acute cases. These are bronchodilators that can instantly affect the muscles of the bronchi and relieve bronchospasm in asthma attacks. If you do not use basic therapy drugs on a regular basis, then the need for the use of symptomatic drugs will increase. And this can lead to the fact that the disease becomes uncontrollable.
The use of nebulizers
The main goal in the treatment of bronchial asthma is the supply of bronchial drugs. Nebulizers are used for this - metered dose inhalers that create a fine aerosol. Small particles of the bronchodilator drug can very quickly penetrate deep into the bronchi suffering from obstruction.
Elimination of risk factors
One of the most important elements of maintenance therapy is to the extent possible the complete elimination of the factors causing the exacerbation of the disease. Most often it is an allergen. Animal hair is considered to be one of the strongest allergens; therefore, in case of hypersensitivity to wool, contact with them should be avoided. It can also be household chemicals, pollen, household or construction dust. Smoking is one of the very strong risk factors for exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Including passive. That is why it should be totally excluded.
For patients with bronchial asthma, an effective method of gymnastic exercises, called the Buteyko method, has been developed. It includes special breathing exercises in conjunction with the dosed physical load.
A very effective way of treating bronchial asthma is a systematic and long stay in a special microclimate. Halotherapy and speleotherapy are methods of treating bronchial asthma by finding salt caves in an artificially created climate. Salt air has a very beneficial effect on the respiratory tract and prevents inflammatory processes and asthma attacks.
Bronchitis and asthma: the main differences
Bronchitis and asthma are inflammatory processes that primarily affect the bronchi. They differ in the following points:
- The nature of the disease. Bronchitis in most cases occurs when an infection enters the body, while asthma is caused by allergic factors.
- Cough in case of illness. Bronchial asthma is accompanied by a dry cough. With dry bronchitis unproductive cough is present only at the initial stage of the disease, subsequently passing into the wet with expectoration of sputum.
- Course of the disease. The acute phase of bronchitis lasts for 2-3 weeks, then only cough remains. In asthma, seizures occur with different duration, after which the patient's well-being is fully restored.
- The presence of shortness of breath. For bronchitis, shortness of breath is characteristic only in obstructive form, whereas in asthma it is the main symptom of the disease, which manifests itself with each attack.
- Temperature. With bronchitis, the temperature can be increased, for asthma, the temperature reaction is not typical.
Asthma can be a consequence of bronchitis, in turn, bronchitis can manifest itself as a complication of a patient with asthma.
Treatment of bronchitis and asthma
Chronic bronchitis, asthma - diseases that require a different approach to treatment. In chronic bronchitis during the period of exacerbation, as well as in the acute form of bronchitis, the treatment of the disease is determined by the cause of its appearance and the symptomatic picture. The treatment regimen includes drugs that relieve cough and promote sputum discharge. If bronchitis is caused by bacteria, antibiotics. With a significant increase in temperature, bed rest and antipyretic agents are recommended.
Treatment of asthma requires attention to eliminate the effects of factors provoking attacks: house dust, animal hair, plant pollen, various chemicals. With sudden seizures is necessary using drugs, in particular - glucocorticosteroids, which are used in the form of inhalers. To appoint them should only a doctor on the basis of survey data. Compliance recommended for patients with asthma diets in which allergenic foods and fried foods are excluded from the menu, and the basis of the food is soups, cereals, vegetable and fruit salads, chicken and rabbit meat.
Treatment of asthma in children: medication and school restrictions
Often, only one of the eliminations of the action of allergens is not able to completely eliminate the symptoms of asthma, and if the parents have identified the initial manifestations of the pathology in the child, it is necessary to visit the doctor and develop an individualized plan of examination and therapy with him. Often, bronchial asthma in children is difficult to diagnose, since it can manifest itself with various symptoms in complex combinations. To facilitate the task of the doctor and diagnosis, you need to keep a special diary of asthma, in which you need to note the duration, severity and frequency of asthma symptoms in a child, the appearance of cough, note all colds and ailments, changes in breathing.
Tips for parents: how to start fighting asthma
It will be important for parents to provide information to the doctor regarding the presence of an allergic predisposition in children, as well as an allergic history of the family. It is important to indicate the frequency of various diseases and the symptoms of various diseases, when, how and with what children have been sick since birth, and also to note the possible effects of various allergenic and non-allergenic stimuli.
To prevent asthma attacks before they develop, and cause discomfort to the child, you need to find out all sorts of warning signals from the body, indicating the presence of early asthma attacks (precursors). In addition to the development of coughing or wheezing, children develop changes in mood, appearance, and complaints of feeling unwell. Such complaints indicate the possible development of an early attack of bronchial obstruction.
Treatment of children: the beginning
Usually, the primary treatment prescribed for children with asthma is to conduct a certain kind of inhalation with drugs. A variant in the control of asthma is the measurement of airflow, which will calculate the volume of air exhaled by a child during breathing. Based on a specific airflow rate, the doctor can assess the condition of the small patient.
After that, the parents, together with the child, will themselves take measurements at least once a day, making sure that the child’s breathing during the treatment is performed at the appropriate level. With a decrease in the speed of air flow, you can indirectly judge the imminent asthma attack, which gives parents plenty of time to apply the necessary therapeutic measures.
Today developed new types drugs, which are called leukotrienes, they showed a sufficient effect in the process of controlling asthma in the treatment of many patients. Most of these drugs, for example, Singular and Accol have shown their safety and efficacy in children after two years of age. But there are situations when none of the drugs show high efficacy, then you can consult with your allergist about immunotherapy. Studies have shown that with a long course of immunotherapy to suppress allergies, signs of asthma can diminish to a low degree of severity, in which many children successfully reduce the load of drugs on the body and lead a completely normal lifestyle.
In children with asthma, the amount of saliva discharged is often reduced and the gastric acid in the esophagus is increased when used. medication in the form of inhalers. However, they may be subject to increased risks of developing gingivitis and caries. But the effect of the medicine against asthma on the oral cavity can be almost completely eliminated by rinsing it with water several times a day.
The problem of allergies in school
Allergic exacerbations in children or the onset of asthma attacks can be controlled during the period when the child is at home. After seven years, most of the time children can spend on school grounds or in extra classes. It is important to know that uncontrolled allergy significantly interferes with schooling a child or staying in extra circles. Due to asthma children can miss a lot of school hours for the year, which will dramatically affect performance. When children are in the classroom, side effects from taking drugs, lack of sleep, or a feeling of general weakness and fatigue as a result of exacerbation of allergic diseases can interfere with the child's normal performance and obtaining the necessary amount of knowledge. To take asthma or other manifestations of allergy under control, first of all, it is necessary to develop, together with the allergist, a disease control plan for staying in school, which will describe the symptoms of the disease that need to be controlled and ways to eliminate them. The asthma elimination plan should indicate the triggering mechanisms of the seizures, as well as information on critical conditions, symptoms, and the right steps to take if seizures develop.
What should be done?
Parents must make sure that the child has taken all the daily medications prescribed to him with the school. This will help prevent problems in the classroom. In addition, you need to make sure that emergency preparations in the form of an inhaler or a special syringe with the drug are available at school. It is necessary to discuss the proper use of drugs with the school health worker or any teachers who will be with the child during the training period. If a child has food restrictions, he should not eat lunch in the school canteen, parents collect allowed meals with them and explain about the danger of taking those foods in the canteen and their health effects. Tell the class teacher and teachers of these facts at events, field trips and birthdays.
If the child is asthmatic, and the seizures are caused by physical exertion, it is necessary to notify the physical education teacher, indicate the symptoms, the scope of necessary actions during the development of critical situations. It is important to tell the teacher that the child can participate in classes and workouts, but in general his workload should be limited to his physical abilities, he can make them slower or in a smaller volume.
Cat and smoking asthma treatment is not a hindrance
American doctors at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, argue that if all the recommendations for the treatment of bronchial asthma are observed, neither domestic animals nor passive smoking will play a fundamental role in improving or worsening this process.
The study involved 395 children and adolescents aged oom 2 to 17 years. They all had a diagnosis of "uncontrolled bronchial asthma". For several years, patients with their loved ones visited the pediatric department, where every 3-6 months they were questioned about the development of emergency conditions and control over the manifestations of the disease.
25% of the children from the project participants were exposed to passive smoking at home. And 55% had any pet. Scientists compared the results from different groups: children in contact with cigarette smoke and not, in contact with dogs and cats or not, and for how long these contacts were observed.
It turned out that if patients and their relatives carefully and carefully follow all recommendations for controlling asthma and preventing attacks, the presence or absence of pets and smokers does not play a significant role in improving or worsening the condition of patients.
Scientists conclude that the treatment of asthma is more important than certain external influences.
Created medicine for asthma
Specialists of the pharmaceutical concern GlaxoSmithKline Plc issued a statement that they created a unique, non-inhaler type drug for treating asthma, which showed itself very well during the tests.
Mepolizumab, the so-called new drug, significantly reduces the frequency of exacerbations in asthmatics. It is administered intravenously or by subcutaneous injection.
If the tests are successful, the authors of the development will apply for official approval of mepolizumab.
Bronchial asthma: when medicines almost do not help
Bronchial asthma is a serious respiratory pathology, based on chronic inflammation and hyperreactivity of the bronchi, mucosal edema and accumulation of thick sputum in the lumen. The disease is triggered by both allergens and some other factors, and an attack with a sharp respiratory disorder can take the patient by surprise, not at home. For some people with extremely severe asthma, using an inhaler and taking a whole range of medications is part of everyday life. What is important to know about the approaches to the treatment and control of this disease?
Bronchial asthma: from mild to life-threatening
With the diagnosis of bronchial asthma, a lot of people live, according to official statistics, 2.5% of the population suffers from it. The real numbers can be much higher, since not all patients associate periodic breathing problems with asthmatic attacks. The severity of bronchial asthma also varies. In mild asthma, which occurs sporadically, respiratory disorders are easily eliminated by using an inhaler. But in case of extremely severe, polyvalent pathology, several medicines are needed at once in a continuous mode.
Bronchial asthma can be provoked by contact with allergens, in such cases, inflammation provokes changes in immune reactivity. In addition, asthma attacks are possible on the background of physical exertion or stress, as well as taking certain medications. One thing remains unchanged - this is chronic inflammation in the bronchus area, which must be suppressed in order to prevent attacks of difficulty breathing.
Selection of drugs for different types of flow
If bronchial asthma has a mild course, occasionally aggravating, for example, on the background of severe physical exertion (after running, intense exercise, prolonged laughter), only an inhaler with bronchodilators is often used to quickly ease breathing. But if asthma is part of everyday life, the doctor prescribes a daily medication. Some people suffer from chronic persistent asthma, light enough to be controlled with a single drug - an inhaled corticosteroid, which is considered the gold standard for treating asthma. But for moderate to severe asthma, patients should be treated with a combination of medicines, both inhaled and ingested. All necessary medications individually the doctor selects, based on the data of the medical history, complaints, severity of the condition and physical data, the results of functional tests.
Inhaler in combination with drugs inside
Treatment may include two, three or more medications, in a single dose or in multiple doses per day. Some inhalers combine steroids with bronchodilators to expand the airway. In addition to inhalers, patients can also take pills known as leukotriene receptor antagonists (they inhibit inflammation). A relatively new class of drugs called monoclonal antibodies, can reduce the body's response to allergic triggers in some patients with allergic bronchial asthma. Doctors work closely with patients to choose the right medication based on age, symptoms, severity of seizures, and side effects of treatment. The course of the disease can change over time, and doctors can adjust the types of drugs and dosages so that patients can control the condition as effectively as possible.
For people with extremely severe asthma, when shortness of breath occurs several times a day, we need different ways of tracking regular medications, not to mention the urgent activities needed during the day or night (using an inhaler to make breathing easier). In some cases, a nebulizer is used to deliver some of the drugs, as well as an inhaler and oral medications. In severe cases, even corticosteroids are prescribed to suppress inflammation, which are known for their complications, including weight gain, osteoporosis, high blood pressure and diabetes. The treatment is made as short as possible to reduce the likelihood of side effects.
Allergens, triggers and breathing problems
About 80% of adults with asthma have concomitant allergic reactions. Most people with asthma often experience allergies and in other forms, there are triggers in the environment that cause attacks of difficulty breathing. These include allergens, such as extremely common dust mites, household mold, pollen, tobacco smoke and pet dander, as well as chemical irritants (such as perfume, cinder, smoke). Asthma infections can provoke severe respiratory disorders, so the doctor is likely to recommend vaccinations against some infections and annual flu vaccination.
Dust mites are a common trigger and allergen that disrupts asthmatics. Durable zippered covers are available to protect pillows and mattresses. If there are carpets in the house, you must wear a mask when vacuuming. This list can be continued, asthma attacks and ways to prevent them vary depending on the person.
Treatment plan, suppression of inflammation in the bronchi
All patients with asthma should have an action plan for exacerbations and beyond to help them keep track of medication and respiratory function, and note the steps to be taken during an asthma attack. This may be a handwritten paper version or various applications for the smartphone. What is important is a clear registration of all necessary steps and their meticulous execution. This will help reduce the frequency of relapses and systematically suppress inflammation of the bronchi by taking medications.
In some cases, despite the fact that the patient is doing everything correctly, he adheres to the regimen of medication, visits a specialist, tries to avoid triggers — bronchial asthma progresses and overall health continues to deteriorate. Many patients often go to the hospital where they are treated, but the seizures recur again and again, and the inflammation in the bronchi does not fade.
In this case, a relatively new and expensive method of treatment can be used - a thermoplastic of the bronchi. It involves inserting a catheter into the bronchi and using radio frequencies to generate heat to destroy or relax smooth muscles. It is intended only for adult patients with severe asthma who do not respond to standard medications. Smooth bronchial muscles of the lungs cannot be controlled by volitional efforts. A smooth muscle spasm has two negative effects: it can block the airways, making it difficult to breathe, and when stimulated by contact with allergens, smooth muscles can permanently spasm. threatening the development of suffocation. Thermoplastic eliminates these problems. It is carried out in three separate stages, each of which is performed at intervals of at least three weeks during sedation. Bronchial thermoplastic is not a medicine, it is not shown to everyone. It is performed only for patients who do not have adequate responses to standard treatment.
Bronchial asthma or COPD: how to recognize the disease?
When a patient develops a chronic pathology of the respiratory tract, such as bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (also called COPD), it becomes part of everyday life. The big question is: how can a patient improve his breathing? The first step is to make the diagnosis correctly. Some differences between shortness of breath or coughing attacks in asthma and COPD are subtle. Plus, there is also a complicated situation: a combination of manifestations of bronchial asthma and COPD. It is important to have a detailed examination, an accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment in order to maximally normalize the state and function of external respiration.
Bronchial asthma: the beginning in youth
Often, the first signs of asthma occur in children or adolescents with hereditary predisposition and allergic mood of the body. Not always breathing problems, shortness of breath or persistent dry coughing attacks immediately suggest to the pediatrician about the diagnosis. Obstructive bronchitis, acute respiratory viral infections, laryngitis and other pathologies can be treated for a long time, but usually then bronchial asthma is still exposed, treatment is prescribed, including with the use of inhaled drugs, whereby breathing is normalized and symptoms stop.
As age increases, bronchial asthma can both progress and regress, it all depends on its causes, severity and treatment methods. If shortness of breath occurs, asthma attacks are not uncommon, asthma is poorly controlled due to only topical medications, more active treatment methods are needed, including the ingestion of steroid medications. As they grow older, bronchial asthma may be more rarely disturbed, breathing problems are not so severe, the person is aware of his triggers and tries to avoid them.
Respiratory problems with asthma attacks
Bronchial asthma includes chronic inflammation and narrowing of the airways due to swelling of the mucous membranes, congestion in the bronchial lumen of viscous sputum. All this significantly impairs breathing during attacks, when the activity of inflammation increases sharply. Often, asthma has a strong allergic component with additional triggers, such as: a cold, exercise, seasonal weather changes, contact with pollen, mold, tobacco smoke and dry air.
Most patients with asthma have a concomitant allergy to household or other allergens (finger, medicine, food). Contact with them provokes respiratory disorders, coughing attacks and the development of shortness of breath. Additional factors in favor of asthmatic respiratory disorders are the presence of relatives with asthma, overweight and smoking, or exposure to passive smoking. Symptoms of attacks include a night cough, progressive shortness of breath, chest tightness, pain or pressure.
COPD: manifestations of the disease in adulthood
The first manifestations of the disease may occur closer to 50 years or older, up to this age, specific breathing problems may not be detected. Gradually shortness of breath, or episodes of dry cough, disturbing the general condition. Patients are forced to interrupt their activities, sit down or lean on objects in order to catch or restore breathing, to reduce the severity of shortness of breath or force cough. Examination can reveal pulmonary emphysema or obstructive bronchitis - these are typical manifestations of the disease. As the progression of respiratory disorders progresses, patients are exposed to disability, they are forced to use inhalers and oxygen therapy, constantly take medications to control the course diseases. After a few years, it may become difficult for them to leave the house for a long time, walk for a long time and endure physical exertion. However, much depends on the severity of the condition, the activity of the patient and the drugs that help in controlling the condition.
Dyspnea, bouts of cough in COPD
The term COPD is a generic term for manifestations of bronchitis, emphysema, and in some cases chronic asthma. Airflow obstruction is a common symptom of all these conditions. Patients also note a cough that separates thick mucus or sputum, as well as frequent shortness of breath. Symptoms are constant and progressing as time progresses.
COPD - is a disease of adults, which is usually diagnosed in middle or older age. Experts say that smoking is the direct cause of COPD for 85-90% of people with the disease in most countries.
In a minority of cases, the cause of coughing and shortness of breath is a genetic condition called antitrypsin alpha-1 deficiency. For some patients, environmental and occupational exposures become provocateurs of the disease. So, cough and progressive lesions of the lungs can be provoked by formaldehyde, soot, chemical vapors, coal dust and other substances. In this case, symptoms of COPD can develop even in non-smokers.
How to take COPD for asthma?
In our country, millions of people suffer from both asthmatic attacks and from the manifestations of COPD. But it is obvious that COPD is a more sinister disease, since not so many people die of asthma every year, while tens and thousands of complications and severe COPD occur.
In order to make an accurate diagnosis, if there is shortness of breath or other warning signs, it is necessary for any person to test his lung function using spirometry. The test involves breathing into a small apparatus, a spirometer, to determine how much air the patient inhales and exhales, how quickly he does it. Other tests may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and determine the stage of the disease.
For smokers with COPD, the first thing to do is give up cigarettes. And, of course, it is important for patients with asthma. As for drugs, some treatments for COPD would be inappropriate for asthmatics, and vice versa. All medicines used to treat asthma, with the exception of leukotriene modifiers, are used to treat COPD. But some medications are only allowed for the treatment of COPD.
Bronchial asthma: exercise control, allergens
If a person is healthy, he does not think about how his breathing is performed, he does not experience any difficulties. But in patients with bronchial asthma, the presence of chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract can disrupt the act of breathing itself, up to the formation of suffocation due to pronounced bronchospasm. Often the cause of this condition becomes an allergy, constant or periodic contact with substances to which the body is sensitized. Although this is a serious pathology, it is quite possible to control it and live a normal life, if you do physical exercise, monitor nutrition, avoid contact with allergens and fight stress.
Respiratory Impairment in Asthmatics
When a person inhales air through his mouth or nose, he moves into the lungs through the bronchi, a system of branched tubules that look like tree branches. At the end of each branch are tiny sacks inside which gas exchange takes place during breathing. The blood is saturated with oxygen, while simultaneously releasing carbon dioxide, which, when breathing, is released into the environment. When bronchial asthma develops, breathing is disturbed due to the fact that the walls of the bronchi inflame, swell and shrink (due to the spasm of smooth muscle cells that make up these walls), causing wheezing, coughing and a feeling of tightness in the chest.
Bronchial asthma refers to chronic pathologies, without constant monitoring, it is prone to progression. Often, shortness of breath is triggered by allergies, then we are talking about atopic asthma. Knowledge of the main triggers and taking prescribed drugs in accordance with the prescriptions of the doctor - these are just some of the ways to control the disease. But diet and exercise should also be part of the system of normalizing breathing and preventing attacks.
Using peak flow meter for bronchial asthma
Many doctors recommend people with asthma to use a portable peak fluometer. This device measures how much air is exhaled by the lungs. The data obtained during the measurements will prompt the patient and the doctor how well the selected medications for bronchial asthma work, and when the treatment plan needs to be adjusted. It is important to discuss the need to purchase a picfluometer for home use with mandatory patient training in its proper use.
Allergy and Allergen Detection
Often the cause of asthma is allergy. Attacks can be caused by various allergens, such as dust, pollen, mold, cigarette smoke, cosmetics, or infections, including the common cold or flu. But not only allergies, but professional factors, such as dust, fumes, irritating gases, or other dangerous chemicals, can cause bronchial asthma.
In addition, some patients develop asthma symptoms during exercise. If allergies or other factors provoking attacks are identified, the doctor may recommend the use of inhalers when contact with triggers leads to shortness of breath or wheezing.
Coffee and tea to help
Coffee and black tea lovers can safely drink their favorite drinks. They contain biologically active chemicals that help in bronchodilation (expansion of the bronchi). Experts explain that caffeine is chemically similar in structure to the drug theophylline, which is used to treat asthma. Taking coffee or tea reduces fatigue of the respiratory muscles, thereby removing the spasm in the airways. Studies published in 2010 showed that caffeine in people with asthma improves the function of the respiratory tract within four hours after taking it.
The benefits of fruits and vegetables
Research published in 2012 in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows that an antioxidant-rich diet that contains, for example, spinach, broccoli, strawberries, and tomatoes can be associated with a decrease in asthma symptoms. One of the three types of treatment was prescribed to patients with asthma:
- a diet high in antioxidants and inactive placebo drugs,
- low-antioxidant diet and tomato extract,
- diet low in antioxidants plus placebo.
The study found that antioxidant-rich nutritional regimens affected asthma symptoms. The high antioxidant diet included five servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit a day.
Diet that suppresses inflammation
Many specialists who study asthma recommend using a specific diet that suppresses systemic inflammation. It is based on a Mediterranean diet, the systematic use of which reduces the inflammation that often occurs with asthma and other serious conditions such as heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to combating inflammation, a rational choice of foods, portion sizes, reduced consumption of fatty or fried foods, weight loss are needed.
Adequately selected physical activity
Full and adequate exercise is important for all patients, even if they have bronchial asthma. A study published in the June 2015 issue of Thorax magazine showed that patients with moderate and severe asthma showed less serious reactions to exercise after 12 weeks of training and aerobic exercise. In addition to controlling asthma, exercise also helps to get rid of extra pounds, which can worsen the course of the disease. This is a very urgent problem, as part of asthmatics, in addition to the main pathology, also have excess weight.
Ability to relax
It is important to keep emotions under control and to deal with stress. Studies have shown that stress is directly related to asthma, frequent hospitalization and the use of drugs. Even prolonged laughter or crying, anxiety, anger, or fear can lead to a choking fit. The American Lung Association suggests calming down with breathing exercises or muscle relaxation techniques. No less useful are psychotherapy, yoga, outdoor recreation.