Recipes of traditional medicine against attacks of bronchial asthma
Recurrent asthma attacks are characteristic of bronchial asthma. They can be, and weak, in time, which can only weak coughing and difficulty breathing. And very strong, which are characterized by an immediate threat to life. For the treatment of bronchial asthma folk remedies need to know it.
During seizures, the following occurs: the bronchi and bronchioles contract sharply. In this case, the chest of the patient is compressed, making it difficult to breath.
Without movement, the mucosa begins to swell, thereby making it difficult for the cilia of the epithelium to move. The mucous glands increase the production of mucus, it thickens, and blocks the flow of air into the lungs. Therefore, even the usual sigh is given to the patient with great difficulty. Further development of the disease may take such a development that the lung tissue will receive irreversible damage.
With the traditional method of treatment, with the help of drugs, often only an attack is relieved, but the cure itself does not occur. In addition, drugs often have side effects.
Folk remedies to help
Our ancestors have long invented a lot of tools that, in the complex therapy with traditional methods, give quite good results. However, there are small requirements, fulfilling which the patient will increase the effect of treatment. This is the maximum reception limit. of milk and products derived from it, plus limiting salt intake.
Also as a tonic it is necessary to drink chest gathering. He bought in a pharmacy. To enhance the strengthening effect, three spoons of this collection are taken and a spoon of anise fruit, licorice root and elecampane is added to it. Everything is mixed, from the mixture obtained, you must take one st. Of spoon and pour 1 m cup of boiling water. Give brew about two hours, and drink with honey.
The first thing is preparing oatmeal broth. To do this, take a kilogram of oats and cook for 4 hours on low heat. The resulting decoction must be filtered and then cooled. While the decoction is cooled, you can do other ingredients. The leaves of birch, raspberry and thyme are taken in equal shares and mixed. Take 5 tbsp. spoons of this mixture, pour half a liter of water and boil. After that, insist ten minutes.
While all this is infused and cooled, we turn the leaves of aloe into a meat grinder, until we obtain a paste-like mass of 400 grams. Then a second broth is poured into a decoction of oats, aloe, a glass of red wine and honey, 100 grams of pure alcohol (of medical grade) and 200 grams of butter are added to them. All this is mixed in the most thorough way. All this is stored in the refrigerator. It is necessary to take every day for 4 tbsp. spoons in a warm condition.
A kilogram of peeled walnut kernels is taken and poured with half liter vodka. Write infused in a dark place for 7 days. After that, the drug is ready to receive. Dosage - 30 drops three times daily before meals. Wash down with warm milk.
For this recipe of traditional medicine, you need to take a pound of pumpkin pulp. It is rubbed on a grater and put enameled utensils. Needless to say, the dishes should be clean. To the pulp add 100 g of dried rose petals, exactly seven leaves of plantain, 4 tbsp. spoons of honey and 1 liter of red wine (preferably dry). Boil the whole mixture and immediately remove from heat. Next, insist exactly day.
After which the infusion is filtered. An asthma patient is treated with this folk remedy for one month. Taking it 5 times a day, exactly one month from the beginning of the reception, you need to take a break for two weeks, and the course is repeated again.
Recipes with aloe
Traditional medicine breathes unevenly towards aloe. So many recipes based on it, and this one also uses the leaves of this plant. Before you collect the leaves, the plant must be planted on a water diet, or rather just do not water it for 2 weeks. After these days, collect 250 grams of leaves from a plant. They do not need to be washed. It is enough to wipe off the dust with a dry cloth.
Using a knife, cut it all into small pieces and put the pieces of leaves in a glass jar. And pour half a liter of cahors on top and add 350 grams of honey, preferably fresh. All thoroughly mixed and then placed for 10 days in a cool place. After 10 days, the infusion is filtered, which is then squeezed out.
Drug intake is carried out according to the following scheme: three times a day. In the first 2 days of admission is carried out using a tablespoon, then the patient should go on a teaspoon and take the medicine before it ends.
For this recipe of traditional medicine it is necessary to take in equal shares the fruits of fennel and anise ordinary, herbs, thyme and flax. Everything is mixed, and a tablespoon of the collection is brewed with one cup of boiling water. The resulting broth is drunk in three doses in one day.
Garlic and lemon
Traditional medicine combines such different ingredients as lemon and garlic in their recipes. They take two heads of garlic, and five lemons and all this is rubbed on a fine grater, and the lemons must be wiped, along with the peel. The resulting mass is poured with a liter of boiled water and infused for 5 days. Then everything is filtered and squeezed. Reception should be carried out a quarter of an hour before meals, the dose - 1 tablespoon.
Eggs and eggshell
Alternative medicine for the treatment of asthma even components such as eggshell. For this recipe, you need to take 10 raw eggs and thoroughly wash their shells outside. Then break the eggs and dry the shell. After that, you need to grind it into powder. The resulting powder pour juice of 10 lemons and insist 10 days. Then the mixture must be filtered. Then take the yolk of 10 eggs and beat with 10 spoons of sugar. After that, add 0.5 cognac to the yolks and mix with the powder mixture. Reception is carried out according to the schedule: 30 gr. 30 minutes before meals.
Among the most common diseases of the allergic type in children that affect the skin, an important position is occupied by urticaria. Its manifestations are easily diagnosed even by parents. Most often, this disease bothers children up to 3 years, but the manifestation of the disease is possible in adolescents and adults. Urticaria in children is an unpleasant disease, the symptoms of which need to be known in order to quickly begin an effective treatment.
Signs of illness
Symptoms of urticaria in children are quite clear and noticeable. Pink or red blisters of various shapes and sizes appear on your baby's body. These rashes are quite itchy and annoying, so the child begins to itch, which leads to a sharp increase in the rash and the merging of the spots with each other.
If you gently press on the rash, you will notice white slightly convex points in the very center of each pimple.
The appearance of a rash in a child is an exclusively response of the skin to an allergen in the child's body that triggers a release of histamine and thinning of the vascular walls, their better permeability. A lot of liquid gets into the skin, after which a big swelling appears, blisters that are filled with water.
It is clear what the urticaria looks like in children, but you should pay attention to the fact that its feature is the rapid disappearance of such an uncomfortable rash.
On the skin, symptoms appear no more than a couple of hours, but sometimes several days. Then from the previous place the blister disappears without a trace and appears in a completely different place of the skin.
Urticaria may also occur in infants, so a nursing mother needs to eat right, pick up clothes from natural tissues and monitor the condition of the baby. In newborns, the disease is quite difficult, because the body is not yet strong, the immunity is rather weak. It is necessary to quickly find the cause of the disease and treat it.
The main causes of the disease
The source of the disease can be cold, sun, heat, water, food, rather tight clothes, bites of various insects.
If your child begins to have a rash in the form of small nodules with severe itching, note that such a reaction could even develop on a food allergen, which is not uncommon today. Among the most dangerous products are:
- egg white;
- strawberries and strawberries;
- plant pollen.
Causes of urticaria in children can be very different, for example, excessive parental care. As a result of strong wrapping, friction of fashionable diapers or even the impact of things made of wool, urticaria symptoms may appear.
Of course, one should never forget about the psychological and physical state of children, because these important factors are one of the main reasons due to which the body can be exposed to a variety of diseases.
Treatment of the disease
Treatment of urticaria in children involves a complex of diet, regimen, stabilization of the nervous system and the work of the stomach. It is important to discover the causes and treat them. Be sure to undergo consultation with a neuropathologist, otolaryngologist, conduct an examination for worms.
It is necessary to treat the disease with calcium, magnesium sulfate, antihistamine drugs. Also use laxatives, make special enemas, prescribe diuretics.
It is possible to treat urticaria in an external way - trays with a decoction of a train, starch, chamomile, bran, ointments. But this will only affect the external signs of the urticaria, and not the focus of the disease.
Remember the fact that in newborns the perception of such an illness is quite acute and brings a lot of discomfort, so you need to contact a specialist very quickly to begin the most effective treatment.
For children of this age, a more benign regimen is prescribed, and they also try to carefully follow the mom's diet, because with milk many allergens can get into the body of your offspring, to which the child reacts immediately.
Child nutrition and diet
Diet for urticaria in children, it is selected by a nutritionist or allergist. If the main treatment is carried out in a hospital, the patient will be offered fasting for 3-5 days. In this case, the patient needs to drink 1.5 liters of water per day. You also need to carry out cleansing enemas. After fasting, they begin to introduce foods into the diet of children.
Children's urticaria of the chronic type causes the patient to turn into a real vegetarian, eliminating fish, meat, milk and eggs from the diet.
For the proper determination of the allergen, doctors recommend special diet. From the usual for the child's menu, gradually remove all the products that could provoke a rash. Treatment of the disease also implies the exclusion of such drugs: Aspirin, Codeine, Capoten, Enap, since these drugs can exacerbate the rash.
Treatment of bronchitis folk remedies at home
How to treat bronchitis in adults at home, everyone asked who had a chance to face this disease. Undoubtedly, at the very first symptoms of the disease, it is worthwhile to seek the advice of a physician, but in every home there will also be many means that can alleviate the condition of the patient.
For the treatment of bronchitis home remedies great compresses. They warm the body, have anti-inflammatory effects, contribute to the removal of toxins from the body. Milk bacteria contained in cottage cheese not only remove inflammation, but also lead to the dilution of bronchial mucus, facilitate its coughing. For the manufacture of compresses should take a warm cottage cheese and, in any case, not cooled, just taken out of the refrigerator.
- Heat cottage cheese to body temperature (for example, in a water bath).
- Spread the product with a layer of 5 mm on a cotton or linen napkin, cover with gauze.
- Apply a compress to the patient's chest with gauze to the skin, secure with a wide bandage or bandage.
- Leave a compress for 30 minutes or more, the ideal period is considered to be, after which the curd begins to dry out a lot.
- Remove the compress, wipe the skin with a damp towel, cover the patient with a warm blanket.
The application of such a compress can be repeated once a day.
Treatment of bronchitis folk remedies at home can be made with the help of ordinary onion juice.
- Peel 2 onions, cut them into small cubes.
- Fold the onion cubes in a jar, pour them with liquid honey in the amount of 100-150 ml.
- Heat the oven to 50 ° C, put a jar of honey in it, wait discharge juice.
- Pass the medicine through a large sieve to remove the onion pieces.
- Keep the medicine in the fridge.
Take onion juice with honey, you can by 1 tbsp. 3 times a day. This mixture contributes to the dilution of mucus in the bronchi, facilitates its coughing.
Inhalation is excellent help in the treatment of bronchitis at home. They alleviate the symptoms of the disease, moisturize the respiratory tract, facilitate breath.
- Boil 2-3 liters of water.
- Add 2-3 tablespoons to the water. dried herbs (anise, fennel mint, chamomile or thyme). Herbs can be replaced with natural essential oil (mint, thyme, eucalyptus) in the ratio of 1 drop of oil to 1 liter of water.
- Inhale deeply and steadily. If you do not have an inhaler, you can do inhalation, just leaning over a cup of water, while covering his head with a towel. The duration of inhalation is 10-15 minutes; it can be repeated 1-2 times a day.
Treatment of bronchitis in children folk remedies
Treatment of bronchitis in children folk remedies in combination with traditional medical methods - an effective way to recovery. Old recipes tested by generations with the use of herbs, berries, roots, honey, milk will strengthen the protective properties of the body, remove sputum, calm down cough.
Danger of bronchitis for children
Bronchitis is a serious disease that requires adequate therapy. The inflammatory process in the bronchi of the child, caused by the virus, is accompanied by fever, runny nose, first dry, unproductive cough, and then wet with mucus discharge, shortness of breath, and a general sluggish painful condition.
First of all, the little patient should be examined by a doctor. He will prescribe the correct treatment, taking into account the age of the child and the characteristics of the disease: antipyretic, cough medicine, then expectorant, antiviral, tonic, etc. Compliance with bed rest, humidified fresh air in the baby's room, and copious amounts of drinking will destroy the mucus in the nose and bronchi and speed recovery. When the temperature drops, for better drainage of the bronchi, you can add therapeutic exercises and massage.
Traditional methods of treating bronchitis
Doctors recommend using folk treatment of bronchitis in children in parallel with medical preparations and physiotherapy. Despite the fact that the components of folk recipes are natural ingredients, self-treatment is completely excluded. Improper or inadequate treatment may develop. pneumonia, asthma or other diseases.
Be careful, when bronchitis with obstruction can not be used in the procedures mustard. The ingress of small particles into the inflamed bronchi can provoke a spasm. Also, when treating according to popular recipes, the possibility of allergic reactions should be considered. Do not take risks! Always consult a doctor and carefully observe the reaction of the child.
Broths, infusions and herbal preparations help to treat bronchitis with folk remedies. Such treatments are softer and safer than using synthetic drugs.
- In the acute course of the disease, let us drink (about 1 l per day) warm infusions of the fruits of raspberry, black elderberry, linden flowers, etc.
- Herbs - coltsfoot, licorice, elecampane, anise, plantain and others - will help to make sputum less viscous and free the bronchi from it. We recommend to prepare the collection: licorice root (2 tbsp. L.), Coltsfoot (2 tbsp. L.), Althea root (2 tbsp. L.), Fennel fruits (1 tbsp. L.). Pour the mixture with 2 cups boiling water. Give a quarter cup 3-4 times a day.
- Compresses will warm and relieve the tension of the bronchi. For procedures using plant and animal fats, potatoes, etc. For example, in a heated (non-hot) vegetable oil moisten a soft natural towel and wrap the baby's chest with it. Cover the towel with a layer of polyethylene. Put on warm clothes and leave for the night.
Why children cough: types of cough, causes and treatment
Cough in children is one of the most frequent reasons for parents to contact a pediatrician. This symptom causes discomfort to the child and may indicate both minor colds and serious illnesses. MedAboutMe talks about the types of cough, their causes and types of therapy.
Cough refers to the reflex reactions of the body. It helps the airways to get rid of dust, foreign objects, accumulated mucus. There are types cough according to the duration of the symptom:
- if the cough lasts less than three weeks, it is called acute;
- prolonged cough - from three weeks, but not more than three months;
- cough lasting more than three months turns into a chronic form.
There is also a time of day at which the symptom occurs more often: daytime, night type. Wet and dry cough differ sputum discharge. According to the sound it is divided into varieties of deaf, hoarse, barking, voiced, etc. timbres.
Different types of cough correspond to different diseases or their stages.
Wet and dry cough: common causes
A dry cough sounds dull and is not accompanied by sputum discharge. Children cough day and night (less often). Most often, dry cough is a symptom of an incipient acute respiratory viral disease, accompanied by laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, or bronchitis.
A wet cough with the correct therapy replaces the dry one in two or three days, characterized by a more "resonant" timbre and sputum discharge. Ill children are relieved when changing the type of cough, however, if the mucus is very viscous, a wet cough can also cause considerable discomfort. To dilute the sputum and facilitate its discharge, mucolytic drugs are used.
Bronchial asthma or asthmatic component of bronchitis is also accompanied by bouts of dry cough, aggravated by contact with allergens. The treatment of bronchial asthma is carried out with special preparations under the strict supervision of specialists.
Why do children cough at night?
Night cough is most often a consequence of inflammatory processes. For example, sinusitis, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, provokes hypersecretion of mucus, which in a horizontal position of the body begins to flow from the sinus into the nasopharynx, causing a cough during night or daytime sleep. When adenoiditis, inflammation of the nasopharyngeal tonsil, enlarged tonsil when lying down irritates the walls of the pharynx.
Night cough can also be a consequence of diseases or structural features of the digestive tract, when the contents of the stomach during sleep can be thrown into the esophagus.
Children cough at night and for such serious diseases as asthma or whooping cough. Nighttime attacks in bronchial asthma can be triggered by an allergic reaction to dust, dust mites, pillow feathers, etc. With pertussis, at the initial stage of the disease, cough does not differ from the symptom of ARVI - dry, without sputum. But nighttime seizures with whooping cough often develop in the third week of the disease, pronounced cough, with sputum separation, exhausting attacks.
Treatment of cough: from antibiotics to popular recipes
Cough is a reflex defense reaction of the body, therefore most types of therapy for this symptom are not aimed at suppressing the reflex, but at increasing the productivity of the process and changing the characteristics.
- Antibiotics are prescribed for treatment only when the bacterial nature of the disease that causes coughing is confirmed (for example, in pneumonia). Cough itself as a symptom is not a reason for taking medicines from the group of antibiotics. Moreover, diseases such as laryngitis, bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory tract may have a bacterial rather than a viral nature, which is a contraindication for taking an antibiotic.
- Antitussive medications are often chosen by parents for treating children, since they tend to suppress the cough reflex. However, the antitussive component of drugs is used only in cases where it is really necessary: with whooping cough, pleurisy, dry, painful cough, causing vomiting, significantly disturbing sleep and appetite. In all other cases, the suppression of the reflex contributes to the accumulation of sputum in the respiratory tract and worsens the course of the disease.
- Mucolytic agents are used to liquefy viscous, thick mucus. As a rule, they are used to help with inflammatory processes in the lower respiratory tract (with pneumonia, bronchitis, tracheitis) in order to promote the release of sputum. To treat such children preferred mucolytics as ACC, Bromhexine, Fluimucil, Ambroxol and their analogs.
- Expectorant drugs are prescribed for a wet, unproductive cough, which, at the same time, does not have a significant effect on sleep, child's appetite. Medicines of this group not only dilute phlegm, but also contribute to its promotion, stimulating the epithelium of the respiratory tract. As a rule, after taking expectorants, the amount of sputum increases (unlike the action of mucolytics), the cough becomes more frequent and the expectoration is much easier. Thus, the drugs in this group help to clear the respiratory tract from stagnant sputum. Most of the expectorant drugs are of plant origin (licorice root syrup, Althea root, Dr. IOM, Pertusin, Gadelix, Mukaltin).
- Folk remedies for treatment are also most often aimed at facilitating the discharge of mucus and are often complemented by some bactericidal effect. One of the most famous folk recipes is black radish juice with honey. But, although many medicines and medications have been created on the basis of the century experience, one should be wary of similar recipes: they can vary properties depending on the quality of the raw materials, have not been tested to match the dose to the age of the child, and can cause allergic reactions.
Bronchitis in children: types of disease, causes and treatment
Most often, bronchitis is diagnosed in children of preschool and primary school age. The most sensitive age period is from 3 to 8 years, since the respiratory and immune systems still complete the formation. The most common form of the disease is acute bronchitis with respiratory viral infections. A pronounced inflammatory process of the bronchial mucous membrane is accompanied by such manifestations as cough and a feeling of painful congestion in the chest.
Types and causes of the development of bronchitis in children
By etiology, bronchitis is divided into primary and secondary. Primary bronchitis develops directly in the bronchi, secondary is a complication of a respiratory viral disease, influenza or acute respiratory infections after infection has entered the bronchial tree from another part of the respiratory system. There are bronchitis in children and by the nature of the process:
- acute bronchitis begins on the background of a viral infection, accompanied by such catarrhal phenomena as rhinitis, sore throat. The symptoms are hyperthermia, dry cough, shortness of breath. Children quickly get tired, there is a general weakness of the body. The duration of the acute form - up to two weeks;
- chronic bronchitis is a rare occurrence in childhood. Characterized by a protracted course, erased symptoms, exacerbations. Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed if during two years 2-3 exacerbations per year are noted with preservation of cough, symptoms of the inflammatory process between exacerbations;
- recurrent bronchitis is diagnosed if children get sick three or more times within a year, the average duration of each episode is from a month.
According to the affected area, bronchitis is divided into a limited form, widespread and diffuse. Depending on the causative agent and the severity of the lesion, bronchitis can be catarrhal, purulent, hemorrhagic, ulcerous, fibrous, allergic, mixed, etc. Determining the etiology of bronchitis at the diagnostic stage is an important factor for choosing an effective treatment for the disease. Most often, children suffer from catarrhal and catarrhal-purulent bronchitis.
For effective treatment, it is also necessary to recognize the presence of bronchial obstruction. Symptoms of obstructive bronchitis of any etiology are a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, the presence of signs of respiratory failure.
According to the degree of prevalence of the causes of the development of bronchitis in children, viral infections are primarily emitted. They account for more than 50% of the disease. The virus, getting into the respiratory tract, descends from the upper part of the bronchi, causing inflammation.
In second place on the prevalence of the pathogen are bacteria. Bacterial infections of the body or foreign bodies entering the lungs with pathogenic microflora cause both bronchitis and pneumonia.
Further identify the following reasons:
- allergies as the cause of bronchitis or the development of asthma;
- untreated ARI, ARVI in a protracted erased form;
- exposure to volatile chemicals (household chemicals);
- abnormalities of the respiratory system;
- systemic infection of the body with parasites (helminthic invasion of the respiratory organs).
Children at risk are in poor sanitary and hygienic conditions, living in damp, cold premises, exposed to passive smoking. Also, due to the high possibility of infection with viral infections, children attending preschool and educational institutions often suffer from bronchitis.
Symptoms of bronchitis: types of cough in diseases of various etiologies
Different forms of the disease are characterized by different symptoms, in particular, types of cough.
The acute form of bronchitis begins, as a rule, against the background of a viral disease with the corresponding symptoms. In this case, the manifestation of bronchitis is marked by a dry cough of an obsessive nature, after a short period (5-7 days) alternating wet coughs, with outgoing sputum.
Obstructive bronchitis is accompanied by painful bouts of cough, difficulty breathing, whistling, wheezing. An allergic form of the disease causes a wet cough with an easy separation of mucus. With exacerbation of chronic and recurrent bronchitis, the dynamics of cough is the same as in the acute form of the disease.
Treatment: antibiotics for bronchitis and traditional medicine methods
Treatment of acute bronchitis in children takes an average of 2-3 weeks. Therapy can be carried out at home, without hospitalization at the clinic, subject to compliance with the appointments of a specialist. There are recommendations that are required to follow when finding a child with bronchitis at home:
- bed rest to reduce the temperature and improve the well-being of the child;
- plentiful drink, a diet low in mucus-forming foods, based on dairy, vegetable dishes, fruits;
- taking prescribed drugs: expectorant, antipyretic, in difficult cases - antibiotics for bronchitis;
- carrying out procedures according to the recommendation of the pediatrician (gargling, washing the nasal passages, inhalations, compresses, topical means, massage, exercises that facilitate the discharge of sputum);
- observance of hygiene rules: frequent airing, ensuring the flow of fresh air, room moistening, cleaning.
In case of bronchitis, self- medication cannot be practiced, since not all forms of bronchitis, for example, can be cured with warming ointments or compresses, and with obstructive bronchitis, such drugs and procedures can lead to acute respiratory failure. It is categorically impossible to use agents that suppress the cough reflex or antibiotics for bronchitis of unknown etiology.
Antibiotics for bronchitis are prescribed in the case of its purulent form, reduced immunity of the baby, complications of the disease. The choice of the appropriate group of antibiotics is the doctor.
Alternative popular methods of treatment for bronchitis, which can be used in addition to the prescribed means and procedures, include warm milk with butter, application of warming ointment on the feet (feet) of the child, and, in the absence of allergies and contraindications, radish juice with honey, cranberry juice or juice, inhalation with herbal expectorant broths.
Bronchitis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
Bronchitis - is a disease in which an inflammatory process develops in the wall of the bronchi. This is one of the most common diseases of the lower respiratory tract. What are the main forms of it, how to diagnose and how to treat bronchitis?
Bronchitis in adults
Bronchitis in men
Bronchitis occurs in men much more often than in women. This applies to both acute and chronic forms. The reason is that among men, much more smoking and working in hazardous industries.
Bronchitis in women
Women suffer from bronchitis less often than men. However, the period of pregnancy and breastfeeding is accompanied by a decrease in protective forces, therefore, the chances of getting sick from them are compared. The difficulty in treating pregnant women lies in the impossibility of conducting X-rays in them and limiting the choice of drugs.
Bronchitis in children
Bronchitis in infants
In infants, the disease occurs in the form of bronchiolitis. In the first year of life, about 3% of all babies carry it. Chances of getting sick increase in premature, low-weight babies, those who are breastfed or have anatomical features of the structure of the bronchopulmonary system. Bronchiolitis is an extremely dangerous disease for infants, because in a matter of hours it leads to severe respiratory failure.
Bronchitis in preschool children
In children of preschool age under 3 years old - this disease most often proceeds according to the type of obstructive bronchitis. The reason is the anatomical narrowness of the respiratory tract and their tendency to spasm under the influence of various viral pathogens (most often, it is caused by PC-viruses). Obstructive bronchitis is dangerous for the baby, so it requires inpatient treatment and round-the-clock monitoring. Children aged 3 to 7 years can get sick and a simple non-obstructive form of the disease. It is less dangerous and in the absence of signs of respiratory failure is treated at home.
Bronchitis in schoolchildren
Bronchitis in school-age children most often proceeds as a simple non-obstructive method and does not pose a threat to life. And, nevertheless, it requires the obligatory call of a doctor at home and careful treatment.
What is bronchitis
Bronchitis is one of the most common diseases of the lower respiratory tract, in which the inflammatory process develops in the walls of the bronchi. It is a fairly common reason for seeking help from a doctor, and among both children and adults of all ages. There are two fundamentally different forms of this disease, which differ in the causes, manifestations and treatment tactics: acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.
Causes of bronchitis
Bronchitis in adults and children is in most cases an infectious disease, and is caused by its various pathogens. In this case, talking about bronchitis, as the primary disease. The most common causes of the inflammatory process are:
- viruses (parainfluenza, measles, influenza, adenoviruses, PC-viruses, rhinoviruses, enteroviruses).
- bacteria (various types of streptococcus, staphylococcus, pertussis pathogen, respiratory mycoplasma and chlamydophilus, hemophilus bacillus),
- mushrooms (genus Candida or Aspergillus).
Most often, bronchitis in children and adults is caused by viruses, which account for about 85% of cases of this disease. However, quite often in people with reduced immunity, they cause the activation of opportunistic bacteria (various streptococci, staphylococci), therefore the mixed flora becomes the cause of the inflammatory process. Therefore, the treatment of bronchitis should first take into account what factor was the provocateur of the infectious process.
Fungal bronchitis is a rarity and it almost never appears in an initially healthy person. Mycotic lesions of the bronchi develop in people with serious impairments of the immune system (children with congenital immunodeficiency, people with HIV infection or AIDS, patients undergoing radiation or chemotherapy for cancer, taking cytostatics).
Also, non-infectious causes sometimes act as provocateurs of the inflammatory process in acute or chronic bronchitis:
- physical factors (dust, smoke, radiation effects, occupational hazards),
- long smoking
- chemical factors (inhalation of vapors of various gases, toxic chemicals, etc.),
- an anomaly of the structure of the bronchopulmonary system, which contributes to a more severe course of infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract,
- the presence of foci of chronic infection in the tonsils, sinuses and its cavity.
Prevalence of bronchitis in children and adults
The prevalence of chronic and acute bronchitis is not the same, because these are completely different diseases, both in clinical manifestations and in the cause that causes them.
Acute bronchitis is a disease that occurs most often in the form of an acute respiratory viral infection. Moreover, the defeat of the bronchi cause not all viruses, but sometimes they significantly weaken the body's immune forces, which contributes to the development of this disease, as a complication. Every year, about 5% of the total population of our country falls ill with acute bronchitis, and equally, both adults and children. With the right medical approach and the absence of complications, the disease disappears in 10-20 days without any consequences. Acute bronchitis in adults is more likely to be recorded in middle-aged and elderly men with a long history of smoking or with certain occupational hazards. In children, this disease is a serious danger, especially obstructive bronchitis or bronchiolitis., as this develops signs of respiratory failure. Every child of preschool age suffers from this disease approximately once every 1-2 years.
Chronic bronchitis is a disease that usually occurs in adults. The reasons are that the main factors contributing to its appearance are long-term smoking or occupational hazards. In this case, the probability of developing chronic bronchitis is 30-50% 10 years after the onset of the causative factor. In children, chronic bronchitis is rare, but the likelihood of it is significantly increased if there are anomalies of the bronchopulmonary system, congenital immunodeficiency, taking immunosuppressants, or when living in the same apartment with a smoker who does it without leaving the apartment.
Bronchitis risk factors
Among the causes of the development of acute bronchitis in the first place are various viral agents (PC viruses, adenoviruses, influenza viruses and parainfluenza, etc.). However, in order for a person to get sick, a certain set of circumstances should arise, increasing the risk of transmission. These reasons include:
- stay in the cold, through the wind,
- the presence of an infectious lesion of the upper respiratory tract (acute or chronic). It includes sinusitis, rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis.
- decrease in the strength of immunity (chronic diseases, taking drugs that weaken the immune system, the state after radiation or chemotherapy, pregnancy and breastfeeding),
- smoking and frequent intake of alcoholic beverages,
- abnormalities of the structure of the bronchi and lungs, which contribute to a more severe course of respiratory disease.
Acute bronchitis in children often develops in the winter-spring period, especially the likelihood of it increases with the onset of a visit to a preschool institution.
Classification of bronchitis
There are two main forms of the disease in children and adults: acute and chronic bronchitis.
Acute bronchitis is a disease in which various causal factors contribute to the occurrence of the inflammatory process in the cells of the bronchial wall. Among them in the first place are viruses and bacteria, less often - fungi and non-infectious factors (dust, fumes, gases, etc.). Inflammation proceeds most rapidly for the first 7-10 days, after which, with proper treatment, epithelial cells begin to recover on their own. Full recovery after bronchitis caused by viruses or bacteria, occurs after 3 weeks from the onset of the disease.
Bronchitis in children and adults can be 3 degrees of severity:
- mild degree
- average degree
- severe degree.
This parameter is determined using a number of indicators, among which the main ones are the degree of respiratory failure, the results of blood tests, sputum and X-rays.
Also according to the nature of the inflammatory exudate, acute bronchitis in adults and children can be:
This can be easily determined in the study of sputum - with purulent bronchitis in the exudate there will be many white blood cells and macrophages.
Depending on the degree of bronchial obstruction, inflammatory contents distinguish two main forms of the disease: acute non-obstructive and obstructive bronchitis. In infants of the first year of life, it proceeds in the form of bronchiolitis with the defeat of the deepest and smallest bronchi.
Acute nonobstructive bronchitis
For acute nonobstructive or simple bronchitis is not characterized by marked obstruction of the bronchial sputum. As a rule, the catarrhal inflammatory process develops in the bronchi of a large or medium caliber. The most common cause is viruses or non-infectious agents. As the disease progresses, the sputum gradually leaves the bronchi with a cough, but the person does not have a feeling of lack of air. This is the most favorable course of acute bronchitis in children and adults.
Acute obstructive bronchitis
Acute obstructive bronchitis is a rather serious disease, which is more dangerous for children of preschool age. The inflammatory process is purulent or catarrhal-purulent and it develops in the bronchi of medium and small caliber, the wall of which is also reflexively reduced, causing a spasm. Exudate clogs their lumen, which greatly complicates the breathing of the patient. Signs of respiratory failure develop, leading to oxygen starvation of all organs (especially the brain).
Obstructive bronchitis is more dangerous in childhood, because the airways in babies are initially very narrow, and the muscular wall of the bronchi is prone to spasm and for obstruction quite a small amount of sputum is enough.
Chronic bronchitis is a disease in which the symptoms of the inflammatory process in the bronchi continue for more than 3 months. This may be an unproductive cough (more often in the morning), shortness of breath, which increases with physical exertion, etc. Inflammation in the wall of the bronchi does not go away, because, most often, a provoking factor (cigarette smoke, gases, soot, vapors of chemicals in the workplace). The disease has periods of exacerbation (which often proceeds similarly to acute bronchitis) and remission, when the manifestations of the disease are minimal.
Considering the main causes of the disease, chronic bronchitis most often develops in adults. In childhood, it is less common, usually babies with congenital immunodeficiency, severe chronic diseases, anomalies of the structure of the lungs and bronchi, after radiation or chemotherapy for cancer.
Bronchitis: symptoms of the disease
If a patient has developed bronchitis, the symptoms of the disease are usually quite specific and allow the doctor (and often the person himself) to quickly suspect this ailment. However, the symptoms of acute and chronic forms are different; it also occurs differently in children and adults. Given that the disease is quite serious, if a person suspected that he had bronchitis, the symptoms of the disease should be an important signal for compulsory treatment to the doctor, because sometimes it causes complications (the most common of them is pneumonia).
Symptoms of bronchitis in adults
The symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis in adults are different, so it makes sense to consider them separately from each other.
Symptoms of acute bronchitis
Acute bronchitis is in most cases a consequence of an acute respiratory viral infection. The onset of the disease is usually quite rapid. The patient notes the appearance of an unpleasant sensation in the chest, bouts of dry, painful cough, which increases at night and causes soreness in the chest muscles. Along with this, fever and symptoms of general intoxication are often present (weakness, headache, muscle aches, bones, joints). Sometimes these symptoms of bronchitis are combined with other manifestations of a viral infection - runny nose, sore throat, lacrimation, etc.
At 3-5 days of illness, the becomes productive, that is, sputum begins to stand out. This symptom of bronchitis brings the patient some relief, because after coughing, his condition improves. The doctor can hear in the chest the appearance of moist rales, which are often felt even by the person, or they can be heard from a distance. Cough with bronchitis is a protective mechanism that promotes the removal of inflammatory exudate from the bronchi and accelerates recovery. Usually, for 3-5 days, the fever and intoxication symptoms also decrease or completely disappear, if this does not happen, then the likelihood of the accession of a secondary bacterial infection and the development of complications is high.
Cough with bronchitis lasts about 10-14 days until all the sputum leaves the bronchial tree. After that, the restoration of mucosal cells continues for about 1 week. Usually, acute uncomplicated bronchitis in an initially healthy person takes about 2-3 weeks and ends with a full recovery without consequences.
Acute obstructive bronchitis in adults does not develop as often as in children and it does not represent such a serious danger. However, the prognosis depends mainly on the degree of respiratory failure, and it, in turn, depends on how badly the bronchi are blocked by spasm and inflammatory exudate. Obstructive bronchitis often develops in adults suffering from bronchial asthma, long-term smokers, the elderly, suffering from chronic lung or heart diseases. For this form of the disease, symptoms such as shortness of breath caused by oxygen deficiency, agonizing, not bringing relief, unproductive cough, wheezing in the chest, which are exhaling, come to the fore. Sometimes they are so strong that they can be heard not only by a doctor with a stethoscope, but also by a person who is close to the patient.
If the degree of respiratory failure is moderate or severe, then the patient takes a forced sitting position, resting on the forearm, for breathing, he consciously connects the auxiliary muscles of the chest, the wings of the nose expand. If the patient is experiencing severe hypoxia, you can see cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, the dark color of the nails on the fingers and toes, it is difficult for him to speak, after a short walk or other physical activity he needs time to catch his breath.
After 5-7 days, when the sputum becomes thinner and begins to cough off the bronchi, the patient's condition improves: shortness of breath and wheezing decreases, exercise tolerance increases. The course of acute obstructive bronchitis in adults is longer than simple and sometimes complete recovery occurs after 3-4 weeks.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
The diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is established when there are certain risk factors and cough for at least three months. Many smokers take coughing as a matter of course, but it is he who is the main symptom of this chronic disease. Most often it appears in the morning after the first cigarette you smoke, and decreases slightly during the day.
Chronic bronchitis proceeds in the form of two phases that periodically replace each other: exacerbation and remission. The exacerbation of the disease develops under the action of viral or bacterial pathogens. However, unlike healthy people who become ill with acute bronchitis, in this case the manifestations last longer, more pronounced, often accompanied by bacterial complications (while acute bronchitis is in 85% of cases a viral disease). Exacerbations also occur in wet, cool weather, with climate change. Each subsequent proceeds heavier than the previous, as chronic bronchitis without treatment gradually progresses and causes the appearance of respiratory failure.
During remission in the early stages of the disease, such a person may consider himself practically healthy, as he is only worried about an episodic morning cough. As the disease progresses, or with frequent exacerbations, shortness of breath during physical exertion (long walking, climbing stairs), sweating, fatigue, coughing takes on the character of attacks that most often occur at night. The patient constantly feels unwell and, despite this, usually the symptoms of bronchitis do not stop many chronic smokers who do not see the tragedy in their condition.
In the late stages of chronic bronchitis, the human chest becomes barrel-shaped, wet rales appear in the chest, the cough becomes permanent with the release of purulent sputum, the skin acquires an earthy tint, and cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle and fingers and toes is characteristic. Over time, this form of the disease usually turns into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is extremely difficult to treat.
Bronchitis in children: symptoms of the disease
Bronchitis in children, whose symptoms often force parents to seek help from a pediatrician and even call an ambulance, is one of the most common respiratory illnesses. Of all the common cold, every tenth is acute bronchitis. This disease occurs in children of any age, but most often in preschool children. Given the anatomical features of young children (especially infants), this ailment sometimes presents a real danger to them.
Bronchitis in children, the symptoms of which sometimes pose a threat to life, necessarily requires examination by a specialist, namely calling a pediatrician. Self-medication or too superficial treatment of this disease can lead to sad consequences, especially for children of the first year of life.
The main causes of the development of symptoms of bronchitis in children:
- viruses (PC virus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus and parainfluenza, enteroviruses, etc.),
- bacteria (pneumococcus, staphylococcus, hemophilus bacillus, etc.),
- atypical pathogens (mycoplasma, respiratory chlamydophilus, legionella),
- the period of one of the following diseases: measles, rubella, whooping cough,
- air allergens (pollen, house dust, mold fungus),
- mushrooms (Candida, Aspergillus).
Predisposition to the development of bronchitis is in premature and low-weight babies who are bottle-fed, having congenital anomalies of the structure of the bronchi and lungs, suffering from a violation of nasal breathing (due to the strong growth of adenoids, chronic sinusitis, rhinitis, curvature of the nasal septum) with chronic foci of infection. respiratory system.
Most often acute bronchitis develops in children attending preschool institutions in the winter-spring period, living in dysfunctional families, or in those whose parents do not bother to smoke outside the walls of the apartment and do it at home.
Simple acute bronchitis
In acute simple non-obstructive bronchitis in children, the inflammatory process develops in the bronchi of medium or large caliber. This is the most favorable course of the disease in children, because in most cases it ends safely. The disease usually begins acutely with the appearance of dry, painful cough, chest pain (due to constant tension of the pectoral muscles), fever, which usually does not reach very large numbers (38-39 ° C), symptoms of general intoxication (aching joints, muscles, bones, weakness, chills, dizziness). Sometimes the symptoms of bronchitis in children can be combined with other signs of a viral infection (pain, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, discharge from the eyes, etc.).
As a rule, after 5-7 days of illness (against the background of a specific treatment, maybe even earlier), the cough becomes wet. At the same time passes and fever. With a favorable course of the disease and the absence of complications, the child fully recovers in 2-3 weeks.
A feature of acute non-obstructive bronchitis is that the inflammatory process develops in the large bronchi and does not descend into their deep sections. As a result, there is no blockage due to spasm of the wall and accumulated mucus. For simple bronchitis is not characterized by shortness of breath and signs of respiratory failure, so it proceeds relatively well. Unfortunately, it is less common in babies, while most often they have two other extremely dangerous forms of the disease: bronchiolitis and obstructive bronchitis in children.
Acute obstructive bronchitis in children
Obstructive bronchitis in children is a fairly common disease. Before the onset of 3 years, 25% of babies at least once suffer from it, but, as practice shows, after the first episode, subsequent ones often arise. Several recurrent obstructive bronchitis during one year may indicate the onset of such a serious illness as bronchial asthma, since they have a similar nature. In addition, frequent episodes of this disease (usually 2-3 times a year) significantly increase the risk of developing chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary emphysema.
Acute obstructive bronchitis in children occurs when the inflammatory process affects the bronchi of small and medium caliber. Some types of viruses (for example, PC viruses) have tropism for the mucous membrane of precisely these types of bronchi. They contribute to the spasm of the muscle cells of the wall, causing the mucus to accumulate in their lumen and in the deepest sections of the respiratory tract. The process of normal gas exchange is disturbed, which contributes to the development of respiratory failure. The danger of the disease in childhood lies in the initial anatomical narrowness of the bronchi, therefore the probability of obstruction increases significantly.
During obstructive bronchitis in children, the following symptoms come to the fore:
- the appearance of whistling wheezes (they can often be heard even without special medical devices at a distance or felt, putting the palms to the child's chest),
- shortness of breath, which increases with talking, games, running. It is characteristic that it is harder for the child to exhale than inhale. This symptom speaks of bronchial obstruction. If you count the frequency of respiratory movements, it can reach 50-60 per minute,
- cough is dry, unproductive and does not bring relief. In some cases, it may not be present at all (especially in small and weak children).
- Attentive parents can see cyanosis of the nasolabial-triangle and sometimes the nails on the fingers and toes, the intercostal space on the exhalation and the expansion of the wings of the nose,
- fever is usually not very high, in most cases the temperature does not exceed 38 ° C,
- Sometimes, along with manifestations of the most obstructive bronchitis, children also have other symptoms of viral infection: runny nose, sneezing, pain or sore throat, discharge from the eyes.
Strangely enough, even with severe shortness of breath and severe wheezing, children with obstructive bronchitis can feel quite normal for quite a long time. Often they run, play and talk, stopping to take a few breaths. However, the danger of this disease is that it can lead to severe respiratory failure, and that, in turn, leads to serious oxygen starvation. If this occurs, the baby is forced to sit or stand, leaning on his elbows or forearms. In the prone position, shortness of breath increases, so the child will be easier if he is put in soft pillows. Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle and nails in combination with the paleness of the skin indicates a serious hypoxia and a threat to the patient. If the parents notice that he has become sluggish, drowsy, has difficulty answering questions,This means that his condition is extremely serious and an ambulance must be called immediately.
Obstructive bronchitis is most dangerous in children of the first 3 years, and it poses a real threat to the lives of infants. From the onset of the disease to the state of severe obstruction, it can take only a few hours. In addition to the danger of hypoxia, this disease may be complicated by the development of bronchopneumonia.
With a favorable course of the disease, adequate treatment (which is best carried out in the hospital, especially if we are talking about children of the first 3 years of life), bronchial obstruction takes 3-7 days. After that, the child has a wet cough with sputum and the condition is much easier. In most cases, the disease ends on the 10-14 day without any consequences, but often the episodes of obstructive bronchitis recur during each subsequent cold. Most of the children subsequently "outgrow" this condition, however, every third child with recurrent obstructive bronchitis in childhood subsequently develops bronchial asthma.
The most dangerous type of inflammatory lesion of the bronchi in children is acute bronchiolitis. It develops, as a rule, in children of the first 3 years of life and is especially dangerous for infants, because for them it represents a serious threat to life. Mortality from this disease today is about 1% of all cases, but in most cases these are children aged 5-7 months, premature or low-weight, artificially fed, with congenital malformations of the respiratory system or heart. Of all children in the first year of life, about 3% suffer bronchiolitis.
The main cause of this disease is PC viruses, which have tropism for the tissue of the mucous membrane of the smallest bronchi. In addition, bronchiolitis can cause cytomegalovirus, herpes virus and varicella, chlamydia and mycoplasma. In case of severe disease, bacterial complications develop, which result from the activation of conditionally pathogenic flora (streptococci, staphylococci). This sometimes leads to the development of severe pneumonia.
Bronchiolitis develops, as a rule, rapidly. Initially, it manifests symptoms of intoxication, low fever and runny nose. For 2-3 days the baby becomes restless, refuses food, can not suck the breast. He has shortness of breath, lots of wheezing, which can be heard from a distance. Children younger than 6 months do not always know how to cough, so all the mucus and exudate accumulates in their deep respiratory tract. The frequency of respiratory movements reaches 60-80, and the pulse is 160-180 per minute. Visually, you can see cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle and fingers on the background of the overall pallor of the skin, or the blue of the skin of the whole body. The child becomes lethargic, drowsy, reacts poorly to the appeal to him.
This extremely dangerous condition requires an immediate emergency call and treatment in a 24-hour hospital. Without therapy, the baby may die from respiratory failure and hypoxia, dehydration, pneumonia, or other complications.
The danger of bronchitis for young children
The greatest danger to infants is acute bronchiolitis. Despite all modern advances in medicine, the death rate from this disease today is about 1%, and this is despite the fact that every thirty children of the first year of life suffer it at least once.
Children 2-3 years of age are prone to the development of obstructive bronchitis. With timely and proper treatment, it usually ends safely, however, frequent recurrent episodes are a risk factor for the development of bronchial asthma later.
Attentive parents should timely recognize the first symptoms of these two diseases in their child and call a pediatrician as soon as possible. If a child becomes sluggish, drowsy, inactive and shortness of breath reaches 50-60 respiratory movements per minute, then an ambulance brigade must be called, as the child is threatened with severe oxygen starvation.
Cough for bronchitis: what is its role
Cough with bronchitis is the most important protective mechanism, because this is how the bronchial mucosa tries to get rid of mucus and inflammatory exudate that has accumulated on it. The difficulty in treating babies is that the strength of their pectoral muscles is not sufficient for a full-fledged cough, and children of the first half of the year do not know how to do this. As a result, the entire sputum accumulates in the bronchi, which greatly increases the obstruction and inflammatory process.
At the beginning of any type of acute bronchitis, the cough is dry, unproductive, paroxysmal and brings serious suffering to the patient, because during the first 2-3 nights of the disease he cannot sleep easy because of him. In addition, coughing attacks cause pain in the chest muscles, sore throat. However, for 3-5 days mucous cells begin to actively develop sputum and the nature of the cough changes to wet. Now the patient can cough up and this gives him relief. At 10-14 days of illness, the cough usually goes away completely.
If from the first days of the disease to try to completely eliminate the cough with bronchitis, then all the mucus remains in the airways, which does not accelerate recovery, but rather can lead to the development of pneumonia. Therefore, excessive intake of antitussive drugs in this disease is extremely dangerous, especially in young children.
Diagnosis of bronchitis
Bronchitis is a disease that at any age requires seeking help from a doctor. Simple non-obstructive bronchitis, which did not cause the addition of secondary bacterial flora, passes fairly quickly and without any health consequences. However, unfortunately, no one can predict how the disease will behave, especially if we are talking about a small child. Therefore, if a person has a dry hacking cough, chest pain and fever with symptoms of intoxication, then the probability of developing bronchitis is high and the first thing a patient needs to do is make an appointment with a doctor.
The doctor conducts a general examination of the patient, talks with him, carefully listens to the history of his illness and sends him to additional diagnostic methods. These include:
- General blood analysis
It shows increased leukocyte levels and ESR. When the viral nature of the disease increases the number of lymphocytes, and when the bacterial or mixed - neutrophils.
- General analysis of sputum
It is carried out in order to identify the nature of sputum (mucous or purulent), determine the pathogen (if we are talking about a bacterial agent) and conduct an analysis of sensitivity to antibiotics.
- X-ray examination
With simple non-obstructive bronchitis, it usually gives nothing. However, it is important for the doctor to identify in time the development of such a serious complication as pneumonia. In obstructive bronchitis, sometimes (especially in children), the presence of bronchopneumonia can be indicated in custody, since these conditions are very close.
This study reflects the degree of bronchial obstruction, reveals respiratory failure. However, in children under 6 years of age it is not carried out, since children of preschool age cannot correctly fulfill all the necessary requirements.
This is a very painful and serious method of examination, which is carried out mainly with recurrent bronchitis with suspected anatomical anomalies, foreign body, tumor. Sometimes they are disguised as acute or chronic bronchitis.
- Computed tomography of the chest
This diagnostic method is also not routine, that is, it needs serious indications. This may be a suspicion of the presence of a foreign body, a tumor, anatomical features, inflammation of the lungs and other unclear states.
Depending on the evidence, the doctor may send the patient to other types of research.
After the doctor confirms that the cause of the deterioration is indeed bronchitis, he will definitely prescribe a certain treatment. It differs according to the form of the disease: acute and chronic bronchitis is treated differently. Also different and therapeutic tactics for children and adults. However, the most important and fundamental point in the treatment of bronchitis is the determination of the probable cause of the disease: viruses, bacteria, fungi, non-infectious factors, because this parameter determines the main course of therapy.
Treatment of bronchitis in adults
Treatment of bronchitis in adults should begin with a mandatory visit to the doctor. He will prescribe the necessary additional examination and determine the probable cause of the disease and its form.
How to treat acute bronchitis
The answer to the question of how to treat bronchitis, which is not accompanied by bronchial obstruction, is quite simple. Considering that in 85% of cases it is caused by viruses, the therapy is symptomatic. Appropriate antiviral drugs can be used only with proven involvement of the influenza virus, herpes or cytomegalovirus, but in actual clinical practice, the causative agent is almost never verified. Treatment of bronchitis in adults caused by bacteria (this is the case in 10% of cases) is carried out by antibiotics to which the pathogen is sensitive.
In addition to etiotropic therapy, treatment of bronchitis is carried out with symptomatic drugs:
- antipyretic (paracetamol, ibuprofen) with high fever,
- mucolytics ( ambroxol, acetylcysteine) in the presence of viscous sputum difficult to separate,
- protivokashlevye ( butamirati, codeine) with dry hacking cough,
- bronchodilators ( Berodual, Berotek, Atrovent) through a nebulizer to expand the bronchi in bronchial obstructive forms,
- saline solutions for inhalation and instillation into the nasal cavity.
In addition to drug therapy, various methods of physiotherapy, massage, and gymnastics are used.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis
Treatment of chronic bronchitis is a more difficult task than an acute one. The most important link in it is the elimination of the cause, supporting a long inflammatory process in the bronchi. Therefore, the main exception in the treatment of chronic bronchitis is the complete elimination of smoking, occupational hazards, the elimination of the infectious pathogen (most commonly bacteria, less often mushrooms), and an increase in immunity. Sometimes under the mask of this disease there is a completely different one with similar symptoms: a neoplasm or a foreign body in the respiratory tract, anatomical abnormalities, bronchial asthma and even thromboembolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis includes the following points:
- etiotropic treatment (use of antibiotics, antifungal drugs),
- mucolytics to dilute sputum and accelerate its excretion,
- antitussives for dry coughing,
- bronchodilators or corticosteroids for inhalation, etc.
However, without eliminating smoking and occupational hazards, the treatment of chronic bronchitis will not be effective.
Treatment of bronchitis in children
Treatment of bronchitis in children is a very difficult task, especially when it comes to babies of the first 3 years of life. Therapy of obstructive forms or bronchiolitis in such patients is usually carried out in a hospital and is a complex of drugs and non-drug methods (physical therapy, massage, gymnastics). All the same groups of drugs are used for them as in adults, but the dosage should be based on the age and weight of the baby. In severe cases, include oxygen therapy and bronchodilators in the form of droppers (aminophylline).
When antibiotics are used for bronchitis
Applying antibiotics for bronchitis or not is one of the most fundamental issues in the treatment of this disease. In order to prescribe these drugs, certain indications are needed, because it has been proven that during a viral infection they are not only ineffective, but also harmful. The reason is that the untimely and incorrect course of antibiotics for bronchitis can lead to the conditional pathogenic microorganisms that are constantly present in the respiratory tract, but do not always cause bacterial complications, will become insensitive to them. If this flora is activated, it will be extremely difficult to treat such bronchitis, the doctor will have to choose antibiotics from the reserve group.
Acute bronchitis in 85% of cases is caused by viruses and in 10% by bacteria, all other types account for the remaining 5%. Antibiotics for bronchitis are prescribed in the case when the doctor will be sure that the patient has a bacterial form of the disease. In order to verify this, there are the following main features.
- If the body temperature did not decrease by 3-5 days of illness.
- If the patient has a worsening after a short period of improvement.
- If the patient has sputum acquired purulent character (became white or green).
- If in the general analysis of blood elevated neutrophil levels.
- If the patient has concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, then the probability of bacterial bronchitis is higher.
Patients are usually very interested in how to treat bronchitis caused by bacteria. The only correct solution is the prescription of antibiotics. However, not all of them are suitable. There are certain groups of drugs that are used specifically for the treatment of bacterial inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract.
The main antibiotics for bronchitis caused by bacteria:
- penicillin preparations (penicillin) and aminopenicillins (ampicillin intramuscularly and amoxicillin tablets),
- 2nd generation cephalosporins ( Zinatsef, Ketacef),
- macrolides (azithromycin, josamycin, clarithromycin),
- respiratory fluoroquinolones ( levofloxacin, moxifloxacin),
- protected penicillins (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid).
In any case, the treatment of bronchitis with antibiotics is carried out individually, taking into account all possible contraindications. A good aid to the doctor is sputum culture and determination of the sensitivity of microorganisms to various antibacterial drugs.
Are inhalations effective for bronchitis?
Inhalation of bronchitis is one of the most effective methods of therapy, because they allow you to deliver the medicine directly to the site of inflammation. They are used for the treatment of bronchitis in children and adults. They are carried out with the help of a special device - a nebulizer, which can be purchased at almost any pharmacy. They are produced in two main types, each of which has a number of advantages and disadvantages.
Compressor nebulizer has a good availability, low cost and with it you can use all the medicines that are produced in the form of solutions for inhalation. Ultrasound nebulizer is an order of magnitude more expensive, but its advantage is the absence of noise and the need to perform inhalation with bronchitis in a sitting position. Therefore, it can be used even in sleeping children, who usually actively resist this procedure.
Far from all existing solutions can be placed in a container for a liquid in a nebulizer, but only those that are specifically produced for inhalation treatment and on the package with medication there is a corresponding inscription - "solution for inhalation". It is strictly impossible to pour vasoconstrictor nasal drops ( Nazivin, Xilen, etc.), Dimedrol, Analgin, Prednisolone for Injections, decoctions of herbs, homeopathic remedies.
The list of basic drugs that are used for inhalation with bronchitis.
- Bronchodilators (Berodual, Berotek, Atrovent)
They expand the lumen of the bronchi and facilitate breathing and accelerate the excretion of sputum. They are especially effective in the treatment of bronchitis in children, which is accompanied by severe bronchial obstruction (obstructive bronchitis, bronchiolitis).
- Mucolytics ( Lasolvan, acetylcysteine)
They help to reduce the viscosity of sputum, accelerate its excretion. They can be used in adults, but for children should be extremely careful. Increased sputum production in babies of the first 3 years of life with obstructive bronchitis or bronchiolitis can lead to deterioration of respiratory failure, because an excess of mucus can not pass through the narrowed bronchi.
- Inhaled corticosteroids (Pulmicort)
They are not used for routine treatment of bronchitis; however, they can be effective for the relief of marked bronchospasm in obstructive bronchitis or bronchiolitis in children.
- Saline solutions (saline, mineral water)
They reduce puffiness of the mucous membrane, reduce the viscosity of sputum, somewhat easier breathing. You can apply for the treatment of bronchitis in adults and children, there are no contraindications for this.
Inhalation of bronchitis is a great way of local treatment. To carry them out it is best to use the device that was created specifically for this procedure. You should not get involved in hot steam inhalations (for example, breathe a decoction of herbs over the pan), because it contributes to the swelling of the mucous membranes, and in young children this can lead to increased bronchial obstruction.
Bronchitis: folk treatment
If a person has bronchitis, folk treatment can be used as one of auxiliary or additional methods. However, you should not get involved in this, because often the patient himself can not adequately assess their condition and determine the exact diagnosis. In any case, the first item of action should be a consultation with a specialist, where you can ask whether it is permissible to use national treatment for bronchitis.
There are many different alternative medicine tips that have been used since ancient times to help with this disease. The effectiveness of their doubts among specialists, because it is not confirmed by any special research methods. If a patient has bronchitis, folk treatment is presented in the following ways:
- the use of various herbs (chest collection, thermopsis, sage),
- use of glycerol inside,
- various types of breathing exercises (Strelnikova gymnastics),
- the use of onion broth,
- juice therapy (cabbage, beetroot, carrot juice, etc.), etc.
However, popular treatment of bronchitis should be accompanied by the implementation of all standard medical recommendations. In preschool children, it is better not to use them at all because of the danger of bronchitis in this particularly vulnerable group of patients and the high risk of complications.
When it is permissible to treat bronchitis at home
In children and adults, acute simple non-obstructive bronchitis can be treated at home, but a doctor's call to a home or a clinic is a must. In the absence of proper treatment, this disease can contribute to the development of pneumonia and only the doctor will be able to recognize it in time and send the patient to an X-ray examination.
If there is a nebulizer at home and the treatment does not involve injections (for example, antibacterial drugs), then bronchitis at home is usually treated for 10-14 days. Given that sometimes there is a need for physiotherapy, therapeutic massage, the doctor may invite the patient to the clinic for the implementation of these procedures in the department of physiotherapy.
However, in preschool children, it is dangerous enough to treat bronchitis at home, because life-threatening bronchial obstruction can develop in a matter of hours. In this case, this condition may require emergency hospitalization. Therefore, during the examination by the pediatrician, it is necessary to decide with him the question of whether this bronchitis can be treated at home or whether it is better to choose inpatient treatment.
Indications for hospitalization for bronchitis
If for adults bronchitis is almost never a serious danger, then for kids it is a very serious disease. Especially it concerns acute obstructive bronchitis or broncholitis in children of the first 3 years of life. Therefore, any cough in combination with shortness of breath and wheezing in a baby requires mandatory hospitalization. Regarding a child aged 3-7 years, the issue is resolved individually: if his condition is satisfactory, shortness of breath is either absent or does not prevent him from running, playing and talking, there are no signs of respiratory failure, then treatment can take place at home. However, at any time parents should be prepared for the fact that they may have to go to the hospital.
In children older than 7 years, bronchitis most often proceeds as a non-obstructive type and may well be treated at home, as in adults. In rare cases, hospitalization may be necessary for people at risk:
- elderly people,
- pregnant women,
- Persons with chronic illnesses,
- people with immunodeficiency (HIV, drug immunosuppression, condition after radiation or chemotherapy).
Chronic bronchitis can usually be treated at home, only if you suspect complications may require hospitalization.
Prevention of bronchitis
Prevention of bronchitis is similar to that used to prevent any respiratory infectious diseases. Its basic rules are as follows:
- Active lifestyle, regular exercise in the fresh air. You can list a large list of famous skiers, hockey players, skaters and biathletes, which parents took to the appropriate sections due to frequent respiratory diseases in childhood. One of them was diagnosed with bronchial asthma, the other with chronic bronchitis. And only regular workouts in cold air not only made them healthy and strong, but also made it possible to achieve great heights in sports.
- Hardening, taking a contrast shower.
- The elimination of smoking (including passive) and occupational hazards.
- Good nutrition, course taking multivitamins.